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Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea.
What is known of these free-living amoebae is summarized, focusing on their biology, ecology, types of disease and diagnostic methods, including clinical profiles, mechanisms of pathogenesis, pathophysiology, immunology, antimicrobial sensitivity and molecular characteristics.
Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri
A triplex real-time TaqMan PCR assay that can simultaneously identify Acanthamoeba spp.
Free‐living, Amphizoic and Opportunistic Amebas
Amebas belonging to the genera Naegleria, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia are free‐living, amphizoic and opportunistic protozoa that are ubiquitous in nature. These amebas are found in soil, water and
Identification and Distribution of Acanthamoeba Species Genotypes Associated with Nonkeratitis Infections
ABSTRACT Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan genus found in a wide variety of natural habitats, including water, soil, and air. Pathogenic isolates of Acanthamoeba are medically relevant as the
Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment.
Improved light-microscopical detection of microsporidia spores in stool and duodenal aspirates. The Enteric Opportunistic Infections Working Group.
This new diagnostic technique serves as a practical, noninvasive means to detect microsporidia spores in stool specimens and is also applicable to the examination of duodenal aspirates.
National Outbreak of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated with Use of a Contact Lens Solution, United States
Premarket standardized testing for Acanthamoeba spp. is warranted.
In‐Vitro Activity of Miltefosine and Voriconazole on Clinical Isolates of Free‐Living Amebas: Balamuthia mandrillaris, Acanthamoeba spp., and Naegleria fowleri
Miltefosine and voriconazole are potentially useful drugs for treatment of free‐living amebic infections, though sensitivities differ between genera, species, and strains.
The epidemiology of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in the USA, 1962–2008
Naegleria fowleri infections occur primarily in previously healthy young males exposed to warm recreational waters, especially lakes and ponds, in warm-weather locations during summer months, and does not appear to be increasing over time.