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FoxO transcription factors; Regulation by AKT and 14-3-3 proteins.
The present review summarizes the current knowledge of FoxO regulation by AKT and 14-3-3 proteins, focusing on its mechanistic and structural aspects and discusses its crosstalk with the other FoxO regulatory mechanisms. Expand
A dimeric 14-3-3 protein is an essential cofactor for Raf kinase activity
It is proposed that dimeric 14-3-3 is needed both to maintain Raf in an inactive state in the absence of GTP-bound Ras and to stabilize an active conformation of Raf produced during activation in vivo. Expand
14-3-3 Proteins: Active Cofactors in Cellular Regulation by Serine/Threonine Phosphorylation*
This review seeks to summarize the features of the 14-3-3 proteins critical to the phosphoserine/phosphothreonine binding function and to illustrate through specific examples several ways in which a stereotyped binding function is deployed to regulate diverse biologic functions and signal transduction pathways. Expand
Ras activation of the Raf kinase: tyrosine kinase recruitment of the MAP kinase cascade.
The way in which work from this and other laboratories on insulin signaling led to the discovery of the mammalian MAP kinase cascade and, in turn, to the identification of unique role of the Raf kinases in RTK activation of this protein (Ser/Thr) kinases cascade is summarized. Expand
14-3-3 proteins; bringing new definitions to scaffolding
The 14-3-3 proteins are a part of an emerging family of proteins and protein domains that bind to serine/threonine-phosphorylated residues in a context specific manner, analogous to the Src homologyExpand
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signaling Inhibits DAF-16 DNA Binding and Function via 14-3-3-dependent and 14-3-3-independent Pathways*
Interestingly constitutively nuclear DAF-16 mutants that lack AKT/14-3-3 binding sites also show enhanced DNA binding and transcription activity in response to LY294002, pointing to a 14-3 -3-independent mode of regulation. Expand
Raf kinases: function, regulation and role in human cancer.
The physiological roles of Raf kinases in normal and disease conditions, specifically cancer, and the current thoughts on Raf regulation are focused on. Expand
Oligomerization activates c-Raf-1 through a Ras-dependent mechanism
Oligomerization of Raf per se promotes Raf activation through a Ras-dependent mechanism as with EGF, activation of FKBP-Raf by FK1012A is entirely Ras-GTP dependent. Expand
Identification of novel in vivo Raf-1 phosphorylation sites mediating positive feedback Raf-1 regulation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
This study describes the identification of new in vivo Raf-1 phosphorylation sites targeted by ERK and provides a novel mechanism for a positive feedback Raf-2 regulation, and its phosphopeptide composition is similar to that of the general Raf- 1 population. Expand
Cross-talk between JNK/SAPK and ERK/MAPK Pathways
It is demonstrated that sustained JNK activation uncouples ERK activation from MEK in a manner requiring Jun-mediated gene transcription, which points to the existence of a negative cross-talk relationship between the stress-activated JNK pathway and the mitogen-activated ERK pathway. Expand