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Muscle synergy organization is robust across a variety of postural perturbations.
TLDR
The robustness of synergy organization across perturbation types, postures, and animals suggests that muscle synergies controlling task-variables are a general construct used by the CNS for balance control.
Muscle synergies characterizing human postural responses.
TLDR
The results suggest that muscle synergies represent a general neural strategy underlying muscle coordination in postural tasks that represents variations in the amplitude of descending neural commands that activate individual Muscle synergies.
Subject-specific muscle synergies in human balance control are consistent across different biomechanical contexts.
TLDR
It is shown that trial-by-trial variations in muscle activation for multidirectional balance control in humans were constrained by a small set of muscle synergies, and Muscle synergies represent consistent motor modules that map intention to action, regardless of the biomechanical context of the task.
How does the motor system correct for errors in time and space during locomotor adaptation?
TLDR
Walking adaptation to a split-belt perturbation where one leg is driven to move faster than the other suggests that temporal and spatial control for symmetric gait can be adapted separately, and therefore interventions targeting either temporal or spatial walking deficits could be developed.
Younger Is Not Always Better: Development of Locomotor Adaptation from Childhood to Adulthood
TLDR
Although walking is a well-practiced, refined motor skill by late childhood, the processes underlying learning new spatial relationships between the legs are still developing, which is proposed to be determined by the developmental state of the cerebellum.
Muscle Synergies: Implications for Clinical Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Movement.
TLDR
A method called muscle synergy analysis is presented, which can offer clinicians insight into both underlying neural strategies for movement and functional outcomes of muscle activity, and may offer a better view of the neural structure underlying motor behaviors and how they change in motor deficits and rehabilitation.
Common muscle synergies for control of center of mass and force in nonstepping and stepping postural behaviors.
TLDR
Results suggest that muscle synergies represent common neural mechanisms for CoM movement control under different dynamic conditions: stepping and nonstepping postural responses.
Spatial and Temporal Control Contribute to Step Length Asymmetry During Split-Belt Adaptation and Hemiparetic Gait
TLDR
The results suggest that changes in where the feet are placed or changes in interlimb timing could be used as compensatory strategies to reduce overall SLA in stroke survivors.
Natural error patterns enable transfer of motor learning to novel contexts.
TLDR
Restriction of errors to the natural range produced transfer of the new walking pattern from the treadmill to natural walking off the treadmill, while larger errors prevented transfer, which helps explain how transfer of motor learning is controlled and offers an important strategy for clinical rehabilitation.
Seeing Is Believing: Effects of Visual Contextual Cues on Learning and Transfer of Locomotor Adaptation
TLDR
Contextual cues can be manipulated to modulate the magnitude, transfer, and washout of device-induced learning in humans.
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