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Smad7 binds to Smurf2 to form an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the TGF beta receptor for degradation.
Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis regulates the activity of diverse receptor systems. Here, we identify Smurf2, a C2-WW-HECT domain ubiquitin ligase and show that Smurf2 associates constitutively withExpand
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A SMAD ubiquitin ligase targets the BMP pathway and affects embryonic pattern formation
The TGF-β superfamily of proteins regulates many different biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation and embryonic pattern formation. TGF-β-like factors signal across cellExpand
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Regulation of Cell Polarity and Protrusion Formation by Targeting RhoA for Degradation
The Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases regulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics that underlie cellular functions such as cell shape changes, migration, and polarity. We found that Smurf1, aExpand
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MADR2 Maps to 18q21 and Encodes a TGFβ–Regulated MAD–Related Protein That Is Functionally Mutated in Colorectal Carcinoma
The MAD-related (MADR) family of proteins are essential components in the signaling pathways of serine/threonine kinase receptors for the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. WeExpand
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Processed Vg1 protein is an axial mesoderm inducer in xenopus
Vg1 is a TGF beta-related growth factor encoded by a maternal mRNA localized to vegetal blastomeres in Xenopus embryos. Vg1 precursor protein is abundant in vegetal cells, but the processed matureExpand
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Molecular evidence for deep evolutionary roots of bilaterality in animal development.
Nearly all metazoans show signs of bilaterality, yet it is believed the bilaterians arose from radially symmetric forms hundreds of millions of years ago. Cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, andExpand
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Ventral mesodermal patterning in Xenopus embryos: expression patterns and activities of BMP-2 and BMP-4.
We provide a comparative analysis of the expression patterns and ventral mesoderm-inducing properties of Xenopus BMP-2 and BMP-4. Transcripts for BMP-2 and BMP-4 are maternally stored in eggs, andExpand
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Dorso/Ventral Genes Are Asymmetrically Expressed and Involved in Germ-Layer Demarcation during Cnidarian Gastrulation
Cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, and jellyfish) are a basal taxon closely related to bilaterally symmetrical animals and have been characterized as diploblastic and as radially symmetricalExpand
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A vegetally localized T-box transcription factor in Xenopus eggs specifies mesoderm and endoderm and is essential for embryonic mesoderm formation.
Pattern formation in early embryogenesis is guided by maternal, localized determinants and by inductive interactions between cells. In Xenopus eggs, localized molecules have been identified and some,Expand
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FGF signaling in gastrulation and neural development in Nematostella vectensis, an anthozoan cnidarian
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal transduction pathway serves as one of the key regulators of early metazoan development, displaying conserved roles in the specification of endodermal,Expand
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