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The Sp-family of transcription factors.
  • G. Suske
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Gene
  • 1 October 1999
GC-boxes and related motifs are frequently occurring DNA-elements present in many promoters and enhancers. In contrast to other elements it was generally thought that the transcription factor Sp1 isExpand
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Mammalian SP/KLF transcription factors: bring in the family.
The advent of the genome projects has provided new avenues to explore the question of how DNA sequence information is used appropriately by mammalian cells. Regulation of transcription is not theExpand
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Sp1‐mediated transcriptional activation is repressed by Sp3.
Sp1, Sp3 (SPR‐2) and Sp4 (SPR‐1) are human sequence‐specific DNA binding proteins with very similar structural features. In this report, we have analyzed Sp3 in direct comparison with Sp1. We haveExpand
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Cloning by recognition site screening of two novel GT box binding proteins: a family of Sp1 related genes.
Previous analyses of the uteroglobin gene promoter revealed a GT1 box which is also found in the SV40 enhancer. The GT1 element in the context of the uteroglobin promoter is active in Ishikawa cells,Expand
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A tale of three fingers: the family of mammalian Sp/XKLF transcription factors.
One of the most common regulatory elements is the GC box and the related GT/CACC box, which are widely distributed in promoters, enhancers and locus control regions of housekeeping as well asExpand
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The Tumor Suppressor p53 and Histone Deacetylase 1 Are Antagonistic Regulators of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21/WAF1/CIP1 Gene
ABSTRACT The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/WAF1/CIP1 is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, senescence, and differentiation. Genotoxic stress leads to activation of the tumorExpand
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SUMO‐modified Sp3 represses transcription by provoking local heterochromatic gene silencing
Modification of many transcription factors including Sp3 and steroidogenic factor 1 with the small ubiquitin‐like modifier (SUMO) is associated with transcriptional repression. Here, we show thatExpand
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Transcription factor Sp3 is silenced through SUMO modification by PIAS1
Sp3 is a ubiquitous transcription factor closely related to Sp1. Here we show that Sp3 is a target for SUMO modification in vivo and in vitro. SUMO modification of Sp3 occurs at a single lysineExpand
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Functional Analyses of the Transcription Factor Sp4 Reveal Properties Distinct from Sp1 and Sp3 (*)
Sp4 is a human sequence-specific DNA binding protein with structural features similar to those described for the transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3. These three proteins contain two glutamine-richExpand
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Transcription factor Sp3 is essential for post‐natal survival and late tooth development
Sp3 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor closely related to Sp1 (specificity protein 1). We have disrupted the mouse Sp3 gene by homologous recombination. Sp3‐deficient embryos are growthExpand
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