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How cells respond to interferons.
The Janus kinases and signal transducers and activators of transcription, and many of the interferon-induced proteins, play important alternative roles in cells, raising interesting questions as to how the responses to the interFERons intersect with more general aspects of cellular physiology and how the specificity of cytokine responses is maintained. Expand
Jak-STAT pathways and transcriptional activation in response to IFNs and other extracellular signaling proteins.
A previously unrecognized direct signal transduction pathway to the nucleus has been uncovered: IFN-receptor interaction at the cell surface leads to the activation of kinases of the Jak family that phosphorylate substrate proteins called STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription). Expand
Interferons at age 50: past, current and future impact on biomedicine
The goal is to offer a molecular and clinical perspective that will enable IFNs or their TLR agonist inducers to reach their full clinical potential. Expand
Regulation of the G2/M transition by p53
Evidence that implicates p53 in controlling entry into mitosis when cells enter G2 with damaged DNA or when they are arrested in S phase due to depletion of the substrates required for DNA synthesis is reviewed. Expand
SIGIRR, a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor–interleukin 1 receptor signaling
Inflammation is enhanced in SIGIRR-deficient mice, as shown by their enhanced chemokine induction after IL-1 injection and reduced threshold for lethal endotoxin challenge and biochemical analysis indicated that SIGirR binds to the TLR–IL-1R signaling components in a ligand-dependent way. Expand
The JAK-STAT pathway at twenty.
This initial description of the JAK-STAT pathway led quickly to additional discoveries that type II interferons and many other cytokines signal through similar mechanisms, and it now serves as a paradigm showing how information from protein-protein contacts at the cell surface can be conveyed directly to genes in the nucleus. Expand
A single phosphotyrosine residue of Stat91 required for gene activation by interferon-gamma.
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) stimulates transcription of specific genes by inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of a 91-kilodalton cytoplasmic protein (termed STAT for signal transducer and activator ofExpand
p53 controls both the G2/M and the G1 cell cycle checkpoints and mediates reversible growth arrest in human fibroblasts.
It is confirmed that p53 can mediate arrest at this stage, as well as in G1, and that irreversible arrest must involve processes other than or in addition to the interaction of p53-induced p21/WAF1 with G1 and G2 cyclin-dependent kinases. Expand
Unphosphorylated STAT3 accumulates in response to IL-6 and activates transcription by binding to NFkappaB.
U-STAT3 sustains cytokine-dependent signaling at late times through a mechanism completely distinct from that used by P-STAT2, and is likely to be important in physiological responses to gp130-linked cytokines and growth factors that activate STAT3, and in cancers that have constitutively active P- STAT3. Expand
Efficient transfer of large DNA fragments from agarose gels to diazobenzyloxymethyl-paper and rapid hybridization by using dextran sulfate.
Ten percent dextran sulfate accelerates the rate of hybridization of randomly cleaved double-stranded DNA probes to immobilized nucleic acids by as much as 100-fold, without increasing the background significantly. Expand