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The formation and function of extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus.
Vaccinia virus produces four different types of virion from each infected cell called intracellular mature virus (IMV), intracellular enveloped virus (IEV), cell-associated enveloped virus (CEV) andExpand
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A46R and A52R from vaccinia virus are antagonists of host IL-1 and toll-like receptor signaling.
Poxviruses employ many strategies to evade and neutralize the host immune response. In this study, we have identified two vaccinia virus ORFs, termed A46R and A52R, that share amino acid sequenceExpand
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Vaccinia virus protein A46R targets multiple Toll-like–interleukin-1 receptor adaptors and contributes to virulence
Viral immune evasion strategies target key aspects of the host antiviral response. Recently, it has been recognized that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a role in innate defense against viruses.Expand
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The Poxvirus Protein A52R Targets Toll-like Receptor Signaling Complexes to Suppress Host Defense
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial in the innate immune response to pathogens, in that they recognize and respond to pathogen associated molecular patterns, which leads to activation ofExpand
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Inhibition of IκB Kinase by Vaccinia Virus Virulence Factor B14
The IκB kinase (IKK) complex is a key regulator of signal transduction pathways leading to the induction of NF-κB-dependent gene expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It thereforeExpand
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Poxvirus genomes: a phylogenetic analysis.
The evolutionary relationships of 26 sequenced members of the poxvirus family have been investigated by comparing their genome organization and gene content and by using DNA and protein sequences forExpand
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A soluble receptor for interleukin-1β encoded by vaccinia virus: A novel mechanism of virus modulation of the host response to infection
Vaccinia virus gene B15R is shown to encode an abundant, secretory glycoprotein that functions as a soluble interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor. This IL-1 receptor has novel specificity since, in contrastExpand
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Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy individuals.
The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans remains a global health concern. Current influenza vaccines stimulate antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins but areExpand
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Vaccinia virus immune evasion: mechanisms, virulence and immunogenicity.
Virus infection of mammalian cells is sensed by pattern recognition receptors and leads to an innate immune response that restricts virus replication and induces adaptive immunity. In response,Expand
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Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species soecificity
Vaccinia virus (VV) and other orthopoxviruses express a soluble type I interferon (IFN) receptor that for VV strain Western Reserve is encoded by gene B18R. The 60-65 kDa glycoprotein is related toExpand
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