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Chitosan as antimicrobial agent: applications and mode of action.
The current review of 129 references describes the biological activity of several chitosan derivatives and the modes of action that have been postulated in the literature. Expand
The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations
The completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome is presented, representing the first complete chelicerate genome, and finds strong signatures of polyphagy and detoxification in gene families associated with feeding on different hosts and in new gene families acquired by lateral gene transfer. Expand
Mechanisms of dsRNA uptake in insects and potential of RNAi for pest control: a review.
This review brings together current knowledge on the uptake mechanisms of dsRNA in insects and the potential of RNAi to affect pest insects, highlighting the achievement of implementing RNAi in insect control with the first successful experiments in transgenic plants and the diversity of successfully tested insect orders/species and target genes. Expand
Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment
The proposed risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds was shown to be applicable to assess the risk for side-effects of neonicotinoids as it considers the effect on different life stages and different levels of biological organization (organism versus colony). Expand
RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design.
Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity and that gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. Expand
Comprehensive Bee Pathogen Screening in Belgium Reveals Crithidia mellificae as a New Contributory Factor to Winter Mortality
A comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium covering 363 bee colonies that were screened for 18 known disease-causing pathogens and correlate their incidence in summer with subsequent winter mortality, contributing significantly to the understanding of honey bee diseases and the likely causes of their current decline in Europe. Expand
Pesticide-Induced Stress in Arthropod Pests for Optimized Integrated Pest Management Programs.
The present review mitigates this shortcoming by hierarchically exploring within an ecotoxicology framework applied to integrated pest management the myriad effects of insecticide use on arthropod pest species. Expand
Genome Sequence of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
The genome of the pea aphid shows remarkable levels of gene duplication and equally remarkable gene absences that shed light on aspects of aphid biology, most especially its symbiosis with Buchnera.
The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.
A thorough review of possible risks of spinosad and novel spinosyns (such as spinetoram) to beneficial arthropods (notably natural enemies and pollinators) is provided, and the acute lethal effect and multiple sublethal effects have been identified in almost all arthropod groups studied. Expand
Towards the elements of successful insect RNAi.
An enhanced conceptual understanding ofRNAi function in insects will facilitate the application of RNAi for dissection of gene function, and to fast-track the application to both control pests and develop effective methods to protect beneficial insects and non-insect arthropods from viral and parasitic diseases. Expand