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Biological monitoring of isocyanates and related amines
SummaryFive male subjects were exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) atmospheres for 7.5 h. The exposures were performed in an 8 m3 stainless steel test chamber, and the HDI atmospheresExpand
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Toxicokinetics of 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine in hydrolysed urine and plasma after occupational exposure to 2,4- and 2,6- toluene diisocyanate.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the toxicokinetics of 2,4- and 2,6- toluenediisocyanate (TDI) in chronically exposed subjects. METHODS: Blood and urine, from 11 workers at two flexible foam polyurethaneExpand
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Biomarkers in hydrolysed urine, plasma and erythrocytes among workers exposed to thermal degradation products from toluene diisocyanate foam.
Blood and urine samples were collected from six workers and two volunteers exposed to thermal degradation products from toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-based polyurethane (PUR) before and during theExpand
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Solvent-free sampling with di-n-butylamine for monitoring of isocyanates in air.
The solvent-free sampler for airborne isocyanates consisted of a polypropylene tube with an inner wall coated with a glass fibre filter, coupled in series with a 13 mm glass fibre filter. The filtersExpand
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Albumin adducts in plasma from workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate.
Desalted plasma from a 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,4- and 2,6-TDI) exposed worker at a factory producing flexible polyurethane foam was separated and fractionated into 200 fractions usingExpand
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Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the household and urinary cotinine excretion, heavy metals retention, and lung function.
The relationship between urinary levels of cotinine (U-cotinine) and arsenic (U-As), blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd), blood levels of lead (B-Pb), lung function, and questionnaire data on smokingExpand
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Test chamber exposure of humans to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and isophorone diisocyanate
An isocyanate generation apparatus was developed and stable isocyanate atmospheres were obtained. At a concentration of 5 μg 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) per m3 the precision was found to beExpand
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Long-term Use of Nicotine Chewing Gum and Mercury Exposure from Dental Amalgam Fillings
In experimental studies, chewing gum has been shown to increase the release rate of mercury vapor from dental amalgam fillings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence ofExpand
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Air and biological monitoring of toluene diisocyanate in a flexible foam plant.
Comparative air measurements of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) were performed in a 5.6 m3 standard atmosphere and at a TDI flexible foam plant. Air samples were collected in midget impinger flasksExpand
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Determination of complex mixtures of airborne isocyanates and amines. Part 3. Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate, methylenediphenylamino isocyanate and methylenediphenyldiamine and structural analogues
A method is presented for the determination of isocyanates in polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and related compounds formed during the thermal decomposition of polyurethane (PUR).Expand
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