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State of polarization changes: Classification and measurement
We propose a standardization procedure that provides a convenient, quantitative and reproducible laboratory-based method for measuring the state of polarization (SOP) fluctuations produced byExpand
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Methods to construct programmable PMD Sources. II. Instrument demonstrations
Demonstrations of several four-stage programmable polarization-mode-dispersion sources are compared with theoretical predictions. The instruments can independently control first- and second-orderExpand
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Demonstration of a programmable PMD source
A programmable polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) source is demonstrated. The PMD source is calibrated and exhibits predictable, repeatable, and programmable performance. Such a source can be used toExpand
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Demonstration of a coherent PMD source
A coherent programmable polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) source is demonstrated. Measured PMD spectra are favorably compared with coherent PMD theory. Completely predictable PMD sources areExpand
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Method to measure and estimate total outage probability for PMD-impaired systems
A programmable polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) source is used to measure receiver performance in the presence of first- and second-order PMD. Expand
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Polarization mode dispersion compensator field trial and field fiber characterization.
Two high-PMD long distance routes were characterized and used to test an optical polarization mode dispersion compensator (PMDC) under field conditions. For this trial, 110 km routes with mean PMDExpand
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Adaptive compensation of the effects of nonstationary thermal blooming based on the stochastic parallel gradient descent optimization method
A 40-control-channel adaptive optics system capable of minimizing the impact of propagation medium induced thermal blooming effect in the target-in-the-loop optical setting is presented. The opticalExpand
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Important advances in PMD tolerance quantification for next-generation lightwave systems
In this article a new quantitative method for polarization mode dispersion (PMD) tolerance testing is presented. Novel PMD sources, test procedures, and evaluation tools have been integrated into aExpand