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Ambient air pollution and risk of birth defects in Southern California.
TLDR
The authors' results are supported by the specificity of the timing of the effect and some evidence from animal data, and this is the first known study to link ambient air pollution during a vulnerable window of development to human malformations. Expand
Temporal and spatial variation of the human microbiota during pregnancy
TLDR
It is suggested that pregnancy outcomes might be predicted by features of the microbiota early in gestation, as well as the potential impact of a persistent, altered postpartum microbiota on maternal health, including outcomes of pregnancies following short interpregnancy intervals. Expand
Racial and ethnic variations in the prevalence of orofacial clefts in California, 1983-1992.
TLDR
Variations in the prevalence of oral cleft anomalies according to parental race and ethnicity and maternal country of birth may reflect differences in both environmental and genetic factors affecting clefting risk. Expand
Neural tube defects and folate: case far from closed
TLDR
Biochemical, genetic and epidemiological observations have led to the development of the methylation hypothesis, which suggests that folic acid prevents neural tube defects by stimulating cellular methylation reactions. Expand
Prepregnancy obesity as a risk factor for structural birth defects.
TLDR
The results suggest a weak to moderate positive association of maternal obesity with 7 of 16 categories of birth defects and a strong inverse association with gastroschisis, which is related to undiagnosed diabetes. Expand
Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring.
TLDR
Dietary intakes of choline were associated with reduced NTD risks and study findings for dietary components other than folic acid offer additional clues about the complex etiologies of NTDs. Expand
Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants.
TLDR
Evidence is offered that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. Expand
Holoprosencephaly: epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of a California population.
TLDR
Findings based on such a large population-based series of infants/fetuses affected by holoprosencephaly are presented, demonstrating the importance of investigating the component subgroups of this rare phenotype. Expand
Prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly during the transition to mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States
TLDR
The authors conclude that spina bifida has become less prevalent in connection with folic acid fortification of grain supplies in the United States. Expand
Maternal periconceptional use of multivitamins and reduced risk for conotruncal heart defects and limb deficiencies among offspring.
TLDR
Women who take multivitamins have 30-35% lower risk of delivering offspring with either conotruncal or limb defects, and among non-vitamin using women, consumption of cereal containing folic acid was also associated with reduced risk for both defects. Expand
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