Temporal and spatial variation of the human microbiota during pregnancy
- Daniel B. DiGiulio, B. Callahan, D. Relman
- Medicine, BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 17 August 2015
It is suggested that pregnancy outcomes might be predicted by features of the microbiota early in gestation, as well as the potential impact of a persistent, altered postpartum microbiota on maternal health, including outcomes of pregnancies following short interpregnancy intervals.
Ambient air pollution and risk of birth defects in Southern California.
- B. Ritz, F. Yu, S. Fruin, Guadalupe Chapa, G. Shaw, J. Harris
- Medicine, Environmental ScienceAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
The authors' results are supported by the specificity of the timing of the effect and some evidence from animal data, and this is the first known study to link ambient air pollution during a vulnerable window of development to human malformations.
Neural tube defects and folate: case far from closed
Biochemical, genetic and epidemiological observations have led to the development of the methylation hypothesis, which suggests that folic acid prevents neural tube defects by stimulating cellular methylation reactions.
Racial and ethnic variations in the prevalence of orofacial clefts in California, 1983-1992.
- L. Croen, G. Shaw, C. Wasserman, M. Tolarová
- MedicineAmerican journal of medical genetics
- 27 August 1998
Variations in the prevalence of oral cleft anomalies according to parental race and ethnicity and maternal country of birth may reflect differences in both environmental and genetic factors affecting clefting risk.
Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring.
- G. Shaw, S. Carmichael, Wei Yang, S. Selvin, D. Schaffer
- MedicineAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
- 15 July 2004
Dietary intakes of choline were associated with reduced NTD risks and study findings for dietary components other than folic acid offer additional clues about the complex etiologies of NTDs.
Prepregnancy obesity as a risk factor for structural birth defects.
The results suggest a weak to moderate positive association of maternal obesity with 7 of 16 categories of birth defects and a strong inverse association with gastroschisis, which is related to undiagnosed diabetes.
Replication and refinement of a vaginal microbial signature of preterm birth in two racially distinct cohorts of US women
- B. Callahan, Daniel B. DiGiulio, D. Relman
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 28 August 2017
It is argued that the vaginal microbiota is better represented by the quantitative frequencies of these key taxa than by classifying communities into five community state types, and that previous conflicting results may reflect the different risk profile of women of black race.
Neural tube defects and maternal residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications.
Elevated risks of NTDs and anencephaly or spina bifida subtypes were also associated with exposures to chemicals classified as amide, benzimidazole, methyl carbamate, or organophosphorus pesticides and with increasing numbers of pesticides.
The Continuing Challenge of Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Neural Tube Defects
The process of neural tube development and how defects in this process lead to NTDs are reviewed and it is suggested that discovering the genetic risk factors for these serious birth defects could provide ways to prevent and treat neural tube defects.
Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants.
Evidence is offered that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele.