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Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1
The detection of autologous Nab as early as 52 days after detection of HIV-specific antibodies is reported, indicating a new mechanism contributing to HIV-1 persistence in the face of an evolving antibody repertoire.
Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection
- B. Keele, E. Giorgi, +34 authors G. Shaw
- Medicine, BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 27 May 2008
A mathematical model of random viral evolution and phylogenetic tree construction is developed and used to analyze 3,449 complete env sequences derived by single genome amplification from 102 subjects with acute HIV-1 (clade B) infection, suggesting a finite window of potential vulnerability of HIV- 1 to vaccine-elicited immune responses, although phenotypic properties of transmitted Envs pose a formidable defense.
Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes
The genome of a new SIVcpz strain is sequenced and the subspecies identity of all known SIV cpz-infected chimpanzees is determined, by mitochondrial DNA analysis, and it is found that two chimpanzee subspecies in Africa harbour SIVCPz and that their respective viruses form two highly divergent (but subspecies-specific) phylogenetic lineages.
AIDS as a zoonosis: scientific and public health implications.
Evidence of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been reported for 26 different species of African nonhuman primates and the implications of human infection by a diverse set of SIVs and of exposure to a plethora of additional human immunodewirable viruses are discussed.
Emergence of Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Patients Receiving Fusion Inhibitor (T-20) Monotherapy
- Xiping Wei, J. Decker, +7 authors J. Kappes
- Biology, MedicineAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
- 1 June 2002
These findings provide the first evidence for the rapid emergence of clinical resistance to a novel class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors and may be relevant to future treatment strategies involving these agents.
Sensitivity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 to the Fusion Inhibitor T-20 Is Modulated by Coreceptor Specificity Defined by the V3 Loop of gp120
- C. A. Derdeyn, J. Decker, +6 authors E. Hunter
- Biology, MedicineJournal of Virology
- 15 September 2000
The results of this study show that gp120-coreceptor interactions and the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat independently contribute to sensitivity to T-20, which has important implications for the therapeutic uses of T- 20 as well as for unraveling the complex mechanisms of virus fusion and entry.
Envelope-Constrained Neutralization-Sensitive HIV-1 After Heterosexual Transmission
For eight heterosexual transmission pairs, it is shown that recipient viruses were monophyletic, encoding compact, glycan-restricted envelope glycoproteins, and that these viruses were uniquely sensitive to neutralization by antibody from the transmitting partner.
The first T cell response to transmitted/founder virus contributes to the control of acute viremia in HIV-1 infection
- N. Goonetilleke, Michael K P Liu, +20 authors A. McMichael
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of experimental medicine
- 8 June 2009
Kinetic analysis and mathematical modeling of virus immune escape showed that the contribution of CD8 T cell–mediated killing of productively infected cells was earlier and much greater than previously recognized and that it contributed to the initial decline of plasma virus in acute infection.
Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
Almost complete replacement of wild-type virus in plasma by drug-resistant variants occurs after fourteen days, indicating that HIV-1 viraemia is sustained primarily by a dynamic process involving continuous rounds of de novo virus infection and replication and rapid cell turnover.
Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1
By sequence analysis of endemic SIVcpz strains, this work could trace the origins of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 to distinct, geographically isolated chimpanzee communities and establish P. t.