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Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life
This data reinforce several previously identified clades that split deeply in the animal tree, unambiguously resolve multiple long-standing issues for which there was strong conflicting support in earlier studies with less data, and provide molecular support for the monophyly of molluscs, a group long recognized by morphologists. Expand
Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods
  • A. Hejnol, M. Obst, +14 authors C. Dunn
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological…
  • 22 December 2009
New sequence data and methods strongly uphold previous suggestions that Acoelomorpha is sister clade to all other bilaterian animals, find diminishing evidence for the placement of the enigmatic Xenoturbella within Deuterostomia, and place Cycliophora with Entoprocta and EctoproCTa. Expand
Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools
Molluscs (snails, octopuses, clams and their relatives) have a great disparity of body plans and, among the animals, only arthropods surpass them in species number. This diversity has made MolluscaExpand
Osedax: Bone-Eating Marine Worms with Dwarf Males
A new genus, Osedax, and two new species of annelids with females that consume the bones of dead whales via ramifying roots are described, which belongs to the Siboglinidae, which includes pogonophoran and vestimentiferan worms from deep-sea vents, seeps, and anoxic basins. Expand
Polychaete systematics: Past and present
The historical background for the current unsatisfactory state of systematics of the polychaetes is demonstrated and knowledge of internal and external structures is discussed, with specific attention to problems associated with incorporating them in recent systematics. Expand
A molecular phylogeny of annelids
Parsimony analyses of annelids based on the largest taxon sample and most extensive molecular data set yet assembled suggest that the poor resolution in the basal parts of the trees presented here may be due to lack of signal connected to incomplete data sets, rapid radiation events and/or uneven evolutionary rates and long‐branch attraction. Expand
Trochophore concepts: ciliary bands and the evolution of larvae in spiralian Metazoa
The results favour the conclusion that the trochophore, if defined as a feeding larval form using opposed bands, should not be regarded as an ancestral (= plesiomorphic) type for the Spiralia, or any other large taxon such as the Polychaeta or Mollusca. Expand
Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions
The relationships of the five main metazoan lineages—Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Bilateria—remain subject to conflicting topologies according to different taxonomic samples and analytical approaches. Expand
Broadcasting fables: Is external fertilization really primitive? Sex, size, and larvae in sabellid polychaetes
The cladistic analysis of sabellid genera suggests that gonochorism and brooding of direct‐developing larvae are plesiomorphic in the Sabellidae, with external fertilization and swimming larvae limited to apomorphie clades in the subfamily Sabellinae. Expand
Reproductive biology and phylogeny of Annelida
Annelid Phylogeny and Systematics Oogenesis Annelid Sperm and Spermiogenesis Sexual Strategies and Mating Systems Larval Morphology Larval Ecology of the Annelida. Expand