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Serotonin-dopamine interaction and its relevance to schizophrenia.
TLDR
Serotonergic modulation of dopaminergic function provides a viable mechanism for enhancing therapeutics in schizophrenia, but much remains unclear. Expand
Relationship between dopamine D(2) occupancy, clinical response, and side effects: a double-blind PET study of first-episode schizophrenia.
TLDR
The study confirms that D(2) occupancy is an important mediator of response and side effects in antipsychotic treatment, and is consistent with a "target and trigger" hypothesis of antipsychotics action. Expand
Clinical and theoretical implications of 5-HT2 and D2 receptor occupancy of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine in schizophrenia.
TLDR
Clozapine, at doses known to be effective in routine clinical settings, showed a D 2 occupancy clearly lower than that of typical antipsychotics, while risperidone and olanzapine at their usual clinical doses gave the same level of D2 occupancy as low-dose typical antippsychotics. Expand
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: avolition and Occam's razor.
TLDR
The present review tracks the changes that have taken place in the understanding of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, suggesting amotivation (ie, avolition) represents the critical component, particularly in regard to functional outcome. Expand
A Canadian multicenter placebo-controlled study of fixed doses of risperidone and haloperidol in the treatment of chronic schizophrenic patients.
TLDR
It is suggested that risperidone, at the optimal therapeutic dose of 6 mg/day, produced significant improvement in both positive and negative symptoms without an increase in drug-induced parkinsonian symptoms and with a significant beneficial effect on tardive dyskinesia. Expand
A positron emission tomography study of quetiapine in schizophrenia: a preliminary finding of an antipsychotic effect with only transiently high dopamine D2 receptor occupancy.
TLDR
The data suggest that transient D2 occupancy may be sufficient for its antipsychotic effect, and future studies controlling for nonpharmacological effects as well as activities on other receptors will be necessary to confirm this suggestion. Expand
Treatment of schizophrenia with long-acting injectable risperidone: a 12-month open-label trial of the first long-acting second-generation antipsychotic.
TLDR
In terms of both safety and efficacy, symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia benefit from being switched to long-acting injectable risperidone, and Severity of symptoms of schizophrenia was improved in each group. Expand
Atypical antipsychotics: new directions and new challenges in the treatment of schizophrenia.
TLDR
Although the atypical antipsychotics have overcome EPS, other side effects such as weight gain and impaired glucose tolerance/lipid abnormalities have come to the fore, so the challenges are far from over. Expand
Dopamine D2 receptors and their role in atypical antipsychotic action: still necessary and may even be sufficient
TLDR
The authors provide a heuristic model linking pathophysiology and therapeutics and suggest that the ideal treatment for schizophrenia is unlikely to be single-drug with multireceptor blockade but will require several specific and targeted treatment strategies that are titrated to match the variable expression of different dimensions of schizophrenia in each patient. Expand
Direct Activation of the Ventral Striatum in Anticipation of Aversive Stimuli
TLDR
The data suggest that the ventral striatum, a crucial element of the brain "reward" system, is directly activated in anticipation of aversive stimuli. Expand
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