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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
TLDR
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
Antifolate resistance mediated by the multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2.
TLDR
This report provides a mechanistic basis for resistance to polyglutamatable antifolates through an MRP-mediated drug extrusion.
5-Fluorouracil incorporation into RNA and DNA in relation to thymidylate synthase inhibition of human colorectal cancers.
TLDR
5-FU is incorporated at detectable levels into RNA and DNA of human tumor tissue, but no relation between the efficacy of 5-FU treatment and incorporation was found, in contrast to TS.
Polymorphisms in folate-related genes and risk of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
TLDR
For the first time, the RFC1 80G>A and NNMT IVS -151C>T variants are associated with an increased ALL susceptibility.
In vivo induction of resistance to gemcitabine results in increased expression of ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 as the major determinant.
TLDR
This study presents the first in vivo evidence for a key role for RRM1 in acquired gemcitabine resistance, and is the first model with in vivo induced resistance to gem citabine.
MicroRNA-21 in pancreatic cancer: correlation with clinical outcome and pharmacologic aspects underlying its role in the modulation of gemcitabine activity.
TLDR
Modulation of apoptosis, Akt phosphorylation, and expression of genes involved in invasive behavior may contribute to the role of miR-21 in gemcitabine chemoresistance and to the rational development of new targeted combinations.
Molecular basis of bortezomib resistance: proteasome subunit beta5 (PSMB5) gene mutation and overexpression of PSMB5 protein.
TLDR
A novel mechanism of bortezomib resistance associated with the selective overexpression of a mutant PSMB5 protein is established and is established in human myelomonocytic THP1 cells by exposure to stepwise increasing concentrations of bortsomib.
Carrier- and receptor-mediated transport of folate antagonists targeting folate-dependent enzymes: correlates of molecular-structure and biological activity.
TLDR
This folate antagonist structure-activity relationship can be of value for predicting drug sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells or drug-related toxicity to normal cells and for the rational design and development of novel antifolates.
Non-canonical kinase signaling by the death ligand TRAIL in cancer cells: discord in the death receptor family
TLDR
Better knowledge of the mechanism underlying the dichotomy in TRAIL receptor signaling may provide markers for selecting patients who will likely benefit from TRAIL-based therapy and could provide a rationalized basis for combination therapies with TRAIL death receptor-targeting drugs.
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