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Actions of placental and fetal adrenal steroid hormones in primate pregnancy.
The immediate and long range challenges in this area of reproductive endocrinology are to employ in vitro molecular and in vivo experimental approaches simultaneously to elucidate the nature of these complex interactions and define the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these important regulatory events.
Serum luteinizing hormone, prolactin and progesterone levels during pregnancy in the rat.
Serum LH concentration during the first 11 days of pregnancy was distinctly higher than during the period between days 13–19, with a conspicuous pivot—point occurring at about day 12; beginning on day 20 and continuing to term, a progressive increase occurred, which was not contiguous with the acute, post—partum, ovulation inducing surge of LH.
Analysis of apoptosis and expression of bcl-2 gene family members in the human and baboon ovary
It is concluded that apoptosis occurs during, and is probably responsible for, folicular atresia in the human and baboon ovary.
Placental steroid hormone biosynthesis in primate pregnancy.
The basic mechanisms underlying regulation of steroidogenesis within the fetoplacental unit during primate pregnancy appear similar, in important ways, to those of widely used laboratory animals, such as the rat and rabbit.
Effect of estrogen on angiogenesis in co-cultures of human endometrial cells and microvascular endothelial cells.
It is proposed that estrogen, by regulating expression and secretion of angiogenic factors such as VEGF by glandular epithelial cells of the endometrium, regulates endometrial angiogenesis.
Expression of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 proteins in human and baboon placental syncytiotrophoblast.
The expression of 11beta-HSD-1 in human syncytiotrophoblast would be consistent with the ability of this tissue to convert cortisone to cortisol and provide a means by which transplacental transport of cortisol could regulate the fetal pituitary adrenocortical axis in the human, as recently shown experimentally in the non-human primate baboon model.
The role of estrogen in the maintenance of primate pregnancy.
Estrogen, acting directly, indirectly, or both through a factor or factors other than the level of progesterone, plays a critically important physiologic role in the maintenance of primate pregnancy.
A comparative study of serum progesterone levels in pregnancy and in various types of pseudopregnancy in the rat.
The changes in the peripheral serum levels of progesterone in the pregnant rat werecompared with those found during ordinarypseudopregnancy, the pseudopregnancy of lactation (large litter), and the
Regulation of the primate fetal adrenal cortex.
In vivo investigations have shown that a multifactorial regulation of the fetal adrenal exists in utero in which PRL and perhaps other peptides as well as ACTH selectively stimulate fetal adrenAL androgen production.
Suppression of extravillous trophoblast invasion of uterine spiral arteries by estrogen during early baboon pregnancy.
It is suggested that the low levels of estrogen exhibited during early primate pregnancy are required to permit normal progression of trophoblast vascular invasion and that the surge in estrogen which occurs during the second-third of normal pregnancy has a physiological role in suppressing further arterial troPHoblast invasion.