It is proved that the P systems with the possibility of objects to cooperate characterize the recursively enumerable sets of natural numbers; moreover, systems with only two membranes suffice.Expand

This chapter discusses Membrane Computing, What It Is and What It is Not, and attempts to get back to reality with open problems and Universality results.Expand

This book presents 25 different regulating mechanisms by definitions, examples and basic facts, especially concerning hierarchies, as well as selective substitution grammars as one common generalization.Expand

This book starts with an introduction to DNA computing, exploring the power of complementarity, the basics of biochemistry, and language and computation theory, and brings the reader to the most advanced theories develop thus far in this emerging research area.Expand

This handbook provides both a comprehensive survey of available knowledge and established research topics, and a guide to recent developments in the field, covering the subject from theory to applications.Expand

A recently initiated branch of membrane computing with motivation from neural computing, with basic ideas, some examples, classes of spiking neural P systems, some results concerning their power, research topics.Expand

It is proved that a class of P systems whose membranes are the main active components, in the sense that they directly mediate the evolution and the communication of objects, is not only computationally universal, but also able to solve NP complete problems in polynomial time.Expand

This book investigates two major systems, cooperating distributed grammar systems and parallel communicating grammar systems, which concerns hierarchies with respect to different variants of cooperation, relations with classical formal language theory, syntactic parameters such as the number of components and their size, power of synchronization, and general notions generated from artificial intelligence.Expand

This is a comprehensive (and friendly) introduction to membrane computing (MC), meant to offer both computer scientists and non-computer scientists an up-to-date overview of the field. That is why… Expand

The present paper presents the basic ideas of computing with membranes and some fundamental properties (mostly concerning the computational power and efficiency) of P systems of various types.Expand