• Publications
  • Influence
RC4 Stream Cipher and Its Variants
This book provides a comparative study of RC4 with other stream ciphers and explains how to reconstruct the secret key from known state information and analyzes the RC4 PRGA in detail, including a sketch of state recovery attacks.
Permutation After RC4 Key Scheduling Reveals the Secret Key
  • G. Paul, S. Maitra
  • Computer Science, Mathematics
    Selected Areas in Cryptography
  • 16 August 2007
A theoretical analysis of the RC4 Key Scheduling Algorithm is presented, where the nonlinear operation is swapping among the permutation bytes, and an algorithm is devised to recover the l bytes from the final permutation after the KSA with constant probability of success.
Dependence in IV-Related Bytes of RC4 Key Enhances Vulnerabilities in WPA
A disciplined study of RC4 biases resulting specifically in such a scenario, and proves the interesting sawtooth distribution of the first byte in WPA and the similar nature for the biases in the initial keystream bytes towards zero.
Analysis of RC4 and Proposal of Additional Layers for Better Security Margin
Analysis of the modified cipher shows that this new strategy avoids existing weaknesses of RC4 and few additional layers over the RC4 KSA and RC4 Pseudo-Random Generation Algorithm are proposed.
(Non-)Random Sequences from (Non-)Random Permutations—Analysis of RC4 Stream Cipher
The effect of RC4 keylength on its keystream is investigated, and significant biases involving the length of the secret key are reported, and the existence of positive biases towards zero for all the initial bytes 3 to 255 is proved and exploited towards a generalized broadcast attack on RC4.
New Form of Permutation Bias and Secret Key Leakage in Keystream Bytes of RC4
A complete framework is presented to show that many keystream output bytes of RC4 are significantly biased towards several linear combinations of the secret key bytes, and that these biases propagate further, once the information for the index jis revealed.
Double-block Hash-then-Sum: A Paradigm for Constructing BBB Secure PRF
This paper abstracted out the inherent design principle of all beyond birthday bound (BBB) secure block cipher based deterministic MACs and present a generic design paradigm to construct a BBB secure pseudo random function, namely Double-block Hash-then- Sum or in short (DbHtS).
Some Combinatorial Results towards State Recovery Attack on RC4
This paper performs a combinatorial analysis of the complexity of RC4 state recovery under the assumption that the values of j are known for several rounds, and reveals a nice combinatorsial structure of the RC4 evolution and establishes certain interesting results related to the complex of state recovery.
Attack on Broadcast RC4 Revisited
This paper proves that there exist biases in the initial bytes of the RC4 keystream towards zero, and identifies a strong bias of j2 towards 4, which provides distinguishers for RC4.
On non-negligible bias of the first output byte of RC4 towards the first three bytes of the secret key
In this paper, we show that the first byte of the keystream output of RC4 has non-negligible bias towards the sum of the first three bytes of the secret key. This result is based on our observation