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The extent of affinity maturation differs between the memory and antibody‐forming cell compartments in the primary immune response
Immunization with protein‐containing antigens results in two types of antigen‐specific B cell: antibody forming cells (AFCs) producing antibody of progressively higher affinity and memory lymphocytesExpand
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The phenotype and fate of the antibody‐forming cells of the splenic foci
The first product of the humoral response to antigen is low‐affinity antibody, produced by extrafollicular foci of antibody‐forming cells (AFC) in organs such as spleen and lymph node. These cellsExpand
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Antigen-driven B cell differentiation in vivo
The secretion of specific antibodies and the development of somatically mutated memory B cells in germinal centers are consequences of T cell- dependent challenge with the haptenExpand
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Oct-2, although not required for early B-cell development, is critical for later B-cell maturation and for postnatal survival.
Oct-2, a POU homeo domain transcription factor, is believed to stimulate B-cell-restricted expression of immunoglobulin genes through binding sites in immunoglobulin gene promoters and enhancers. ToExpand
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Ligation-anchored PCR: a simple amplification technique with single-sided specificity.
A simple, efficient, and sensitive technique has been developed for amplification of cDNAs encoding molecules with 5' regions of unknown sequence. In this ligation-anchored PCR, T4 RNA ligase is usedExpand
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Functional and molecular characterization of single, (4‐hydroxy‐3‐nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP)‐specific, IgG1+ B cells from antibody‐secreting and memory B cell pathways in the C57BL/6 immune response to
We have used multiparameter flow cytometry to identify a population of IgG1+ IgM− antigen‐specific B cells which emerges in spleens of C57BL/6 mice following immunization with the hapten,Expand
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FAS is highly expressed in the germinal center but is not required for regulation of the B-cell response to antigen.
In establishing the memory B-cell population and maintaining self-tolerance during an immune response, apoptosis mediates the removal of early, low-affinity antibody-forming cells, unselectedExpand
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B1 and B2 cells differ in their potential to switch immunoglobulin isotype
The ability of purified B1a (Ly‐1B) and B2 cells to switch immunoglobulin isotype was assessed by limiting dilution analysis in two in vitro culture systems. When stimulated in the presence ofExpand
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CELL TO CELL INTERACTION IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
Two new methods are described for making chromosomal spreads of single antibody-forming cells. The first depends on the controlled rupture of cells in small microdroplets through the use of a mildExpand
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The xid mutation diminishes memory B cell generation but does not affect somatic hypermutation and selection.
In this study, we examine the relationship between primary and secondary T cell-dependent immune responses using the response of xid mice to the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP) as anExpand
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