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TERT promoter mutations occur frequently in gliomas and a subset of tumors derived from cells with low rates of self-renewal
TLDR
TERT and ATRX mutations were mutually exclusive, suggesting that these two genetic mechanisms confer equivalent selective growth advantages and provide a biomarker that may be useful for the early detection of urinary tract and liver tumors and aid in the classification and prognostication of brain tumors.
Prostate Cancer, Version 2.2019, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.
The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer include recommendations regarding diagnosis, risk stratification and workup, treatment options for localized disease, and management of recurrent and advanced
Detection of Circulating Tumor DNA in Early- and Late-Stage Human Malignancies
TLDR
The ability of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to detect tumors in 640 patients with various cancer types was evaluated and suggested that ctDNA is a broadly applicable, sensitive, and specific biomarker that can be used for a variety of clinical and research purposes.
Immune inhibitory molecules LAG-3 and PD-1 synergistically regulate T-cell function to promote tumoral immune escape.
TLDR
A strong synergy between the PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory pathways in tolerance to both self and tumor antigens is defined and it is argued strongly that dual blockade of these molecules represents a promising combinatorial strategy for cancer.
Global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine content is significantly reduced in tissue stem/progenitor cell compartments and in human cancers
TLDR
It is found that 5hmC was abundant in the majority of embryonic and adult tissues and closely tracked with the differentiation state of cells in hierarchically organized tissues, and5hmC levels were profoundly reduced in carcinoma of the prostate, breast and colon compared to normal tissues.
PTEN Protein Loss by Immunostaining: Analytic Validation and Prognostic Indicator for a High Risk Surgical Cohort of Prostate Cancer Patients
TLDR
These studies validate a simple method to interrogate PTEN status in clinical specimens and support the utility of this test in future multicenter studies, clinical trials, and ultimately perhaps for routine clinical care.
Androgen-induced TOP2B mediated double strand breaks and prostate cancer gene rearrangements
TLDR
It is shown that androgen signaling promotes co-recruitment of androgen receptor and topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B) to sites of TMPRSS2-ERG genomic breakpoints, triggering recombinogenic TOP2B-mediated DSBs.
Rb Loss Is Characteristic of Prostatic Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma
TLDR
As Rb protein loss rarely occurs in high-grade acinar tumors, these data suggest that Rb loss is a critical event in the development of small cell carcinomas and may be a useful diagnostic and potential therapeutic target.
Adapting health promotion interventions to meet the needs of ethnic minority groups: mixed-methods evidence synthesis.
TLDR
There is currently a lack of evidence on how best to deliver smoking cessation, physical activity and healthy eating-related health promotion interventions to ethnic minority populations, and this work provided scant evidence on the effectiveness of these interventions for ethnic minority groups.
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