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Macrophage activation and polarization: nomenclature and experimental guidelines.
A set of standards encompassing three principles-the source of macrophages, definition of the activators, and a consensus collection of markers to describe macrophage activation are described with the goal of unifying experimental standards for diverse experimental scenarios. Expand
Transcriptional regulation of macrophage polarization: enabling diversity with identity
This Review summarizes the current knowledge of transcriptional and chromatin-mediated control of macrophage polarization in physiology and disease and describes a complex interplay between microenvironmental signals and a hardwired differentiation programme that determines Macrophage identity. Expand
Anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone prostaglandins are direct inhibitors of IκB kinase
A novel mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity which is based on the direct inhibition and modification of the IKKβ subunit of IKK is demonstrated, which explains how cyclopentenone prostaglandins function and can be used to improve the utility of COX2 inhibitors. Expand
Latent Enhancers Activated by Stimulation in Differentiated Cells
According to current models, once the cell has reached terminal differentiation, the enhancer repertoire is completely established and maintained by cooperatively acting lineage-specificExpand
Identification and characterization of enhancers controlling the inflammatory gene expression program in macrophages.
The combinatorial assembly of tissue- and signal-specific transcription factors determines the activity of a distinct group of enhancers and it is suggested that this may represent a general paradigm in tissue-restricted and stimulus-responsive gene regulation. Expand
The Histone H3 Lysine-27 Demethylase Jmjd3 Links Inflammation to Inhibition of Polycomb-Mediated Gene Silencing
The discovery of an inducible enzyme that erases a histone mark controlling differentiation and cell identity provides a link between inflammation and reprogramming of the epigenome, which could be the basis for macrophage plasticity and might explain the differentiation abnormalities in chronic inflammation. Expand
A Large Fraction of Extragenic RNA Pol II Transcription Sites Overlap Enhancers
A substantial fraction of extragenic Pol II transcription sites coincides with transcriptional enhancers, which may be relevant for functional annotation of mammalian genomes.
Trained immunity: A program of innate immune memory in health and disease
Proof-of-principle experimental studies support the hypothesis that trained immunity is one of the main immunological processes that mediate the nonspecific protective effects against infections induced by vaccines, such as bacillus Calmette-Guérin or measles vaccination. Expand
IKK-gamma is an essential regulatory subunit of the IkappaB kinase complex.
By using a monoclonal antibody against IKK-alpha, this large, cytokine-responsive IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex is purified to homogeneity from human cell lines and it is found that IKK is composed of similar amounts of IKK, alpha and beta, and two other polypeptides are differentially processed forms of a third subunit, Ikk-gamma. Expand
The Human Toll Signaling Pathway: Divergence of Nuclear Factor κB and JNK/SAPK Activation Upstream of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor–associated Factor 6 (TRAF6)
A dominant negative version of TRAF6 failed to block hToll-induced activation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases, thus suggesting an early divergence of the two pathways. Expand