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Sterile inflammation: sensing and reacting to damage
Over the past several decades, much has been revealed about the nature of the host innate immune response to microorganisms, with the identification of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) andExpand
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Interleukin-3-induced phosphorylation of BAD through the protein kinase Akt.
BAD is a distant member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes cell death. Phosphorylation of BAD prevents this. BAD phosphorylation induced by interleukin-3 (IL-3) was inhibited by specific inhibitors ofExpand
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Constitutive activation of Stat3 signaling confers resistance to apoptosis in human U266 myeloma cells.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is the major survival factor for myeloma tumor cells and induces signaling through the STAT proteins. We report that one STAT family member, Stat3, is constitutively activated inExpand
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Nod2-Dependent Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in the Intestinal Tract
The gene encoding the Nod2 protein is frequently mutated in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, although the physiological function of Nod2 in the intestine remains elusive. Here we show that protectiveExpand
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Host Recognition of Bacterial Muramyl Dipeptide Mediated through NOD2
NOD2, a protein associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease, confers responsiveness to bacterial preparations of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, but the precise moiety recognized remainsExpand
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Nod2, a Nod1/Apaf-1 Family Member That Is Restricted to Monocytes and Activates NF-κB*
Apaf-1 and Nod1 are members of a protein family, each of which contains a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) linked to a nucleotide-binding domain, which regulate apoptosis and/or NF-κB activation.Expand
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Bcl-2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks programmed cell death
THE t(14; 18) chromosomal translocation of human follicular B-cell lymphoma juxtaposes the bcl-2 gene with the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus1–3. The bcl-2 immunoglobulin fusion gene is markedlyExpand
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Cytosolic flagellin requires Ipaf for activation of caspase-1 and interleukin 1β in salmonella-infected macrophages
Gram-negative bacteria that replicate in the cytosol of mammalian macrophages can activate a signaling pathway leading to caspase-1 cleavage and secretion of interleukin 1β, a powerful host responseExpand
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Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018
Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functionalExpand
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Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by islet amyloid polypeptide provides a mechanism for enhanced IL-1β in type 2 diabetes
Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is an important inflammatory mediator of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that oligomers of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a protein that forms amyloid deposits in the pancreasExpand
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