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Visualizing secretion and synaptic transmission with pH-sensitive green fluorescent proteins
In neural systems, information is often carried by ensembles of cells rather than by individual units. Optical indicators provide a powerful means to reveal such distributed activity, particularlyExpand
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Transmission of Olfactory Information between Three Populations of Neurons in the Antennal Lobe of the Fly
Three classes of neurons form synapses in the antennal lobe of Drosophila, the insect counterpart of the vertebrate olfactory bulb: olfactory receptor neurons, projection neurons, and inhibitoryExpand
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Excitatory Local Circuits and Their Implications for Olfactory Processing in the Fly Antennal Lobe
Conflicting views exist of how circuits of the antennal lobe, the insect equivalent of the olfactory bulb, translate input from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) into projection-neuron (PN) output.Expand
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A Selective Activity-Dependent Requirement for Dynamin 1 in Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis
Dynamin 1 is a neuron-specific guanosine triphosphatase thought to be critically required for the fission reaction of synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Unexpectedly, mice lacking dynamin 1 were able toExpand
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Remote Control of Behavior through Genetically Targeted Photostimulation of Neurons
Optically gated ion channels were expressed in circumscribed groups of neurons in the Drosophila CNS so that broad illumination of flies evoked action potentials only in genetically designated targetExpand
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Writing Memories with Light-Addressable Reinforcement Circuitry
Dopaminergic neurons are thought to drive learning by signaling changes in the expectations of salient events, such as rewards or punishments. Olfactory conditioning in Drosophila requires directExpand
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Sparse, Decorrelated Odor Coding in the Mushroom Body Enhances Learned Odor Discrimination
Sparse coding may be a general strategy of neural systems for augmenting memory capacity. In Drosophila melanogaster, sparse odor coding by the Kenyon cells of the mushroom body is thought toExpand
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Sex-Specific Control and Tuning of the Pattern Generator for Courtship Song in Drosophila
The differentially spliced transcription factors encoded by the fruitless (fru) gene are key determinants of sexual behavior in Drosophila. They are expressed in a minority of neurons with limitedExpand
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The columnar and laminar organization of inhibitory connections to neocortical excitatory cells
The cytoarchitectonic similarities of different neocortical regions have given rise to the idea of 'canonical' connectivity between excitatory neurons of different layers within a column. It isExpand
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Odor Discrimination in Drosophila: From Neural Population Codes to Behavior
Summary Taking advantage of the well-characterized olfactory system of Drosophila, we derive a simple quantitative relationship between patterns of odorant receptor activation, the resulting internalExpand
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