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Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-1-infected individuals: proposed clinical case definitions.
Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) may present as a clinical worsening or new presentation of cryptococcal disease after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), andExpand
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Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Prospective Study
Background:Prospective data on incidence, characteristics, and risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CM-IRIS) are lacking. Methods:Prospective study ofExpand
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Fungal burden, early fungicidal activity, and outcome in cryptococcal meningitis in antiretroviral-naive or antiretroviral-experienced patients treated with amphotericin B or fluconazole.
In a prospective observational study of 54 patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated cryptococcal meningitis, the early fungicidal activity of amphotericin B (1 mg/kg/day) wasExpand
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Determinants of Mortality in a Combined Cohort of 501 Patients With HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: Implications for Improving Outcomes
Cerebrospinal fluid fungal burden, altered mental status, and rate of clearance of infection predict acute mortality in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. The identification of factorsExpand
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Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients
Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is improving worldwide. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a common complication of ART initiation. In this review, we provide an overview ofExpand
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Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy : pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management.
The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV infection, by restoring CD4+ cell count and immune function, is associated with significant reductions in morbidity and mortality. Soon after ARTExpand
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Complications of antiretroviral therapy in patients with tuberculosis: drug interactions, toxicity, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
Access to antiretroviral therapy is rapidly expanding in resource-limited settings, where tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection. Coadministration of antitubercular andExpand
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Frequency, Severity, and Prediction of Tuberculous Meningitis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is a severe complication of antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus–associated TBM. We found that highExpand
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Effect of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection on the T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.
Most cases of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) do not cause symptoms during the lifetime of the infected person. Longitudinal analysis of the immune response of healthy MycobacteriumExpand
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Symptomatic relapse of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis after initial fluconazole monotherapy: the role of fluconazole resistance and immune reconstitution.
BACKGROUND Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in South Africa is often treated with fluconazole as initial therapy. Surveillance data suggest that the prevalence of fluconazole-resistant CM is increasing,Expand
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