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Selective neuronal staining in tardigrades and onychophorans provides insights into the evolution of segmental ganglia in panarthropods
TLDR
The organisation of the nervous system in three tardigrade species using antisera directed against tyrosinated and acetylated tubulin, the amine transmitter serotonin, and the invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFamide, allatostatin and perisulfakinin shows correspondences that support the homology of segmental ganglia in tardsigrades and arthropods. Expand
A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms), with notes on nomenclature and status of names
TLDR
An updated checklist for the two extant onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Perip atopsidae, along with an assessment of the status of each species is presented, following the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Expand
Analysis of the Opsin Repertoire in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini Provides Insights into the Evolution of Opsin Genes in Panarthropoda
TLDR
The phylogeny of broadly sampled metazoan opsin genes is reconstructed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods in conjunction with carefully selected substitution models and suggests that the last common ancestor of Bilateria possessed six opsins: Two r-opsins, one c-opsin, and three Group 4 opsin, one of which was lost in the ecdysozoan lineage. Expand
A revision of brain composition in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggests that the tritocerebrum evolved in arthropods
TLDR
It is suggested that the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda possessed a brain consisting of protocerebrum and deutocere brum whereas the tritocere Brum evolved in arthropods. Expand
Neural Markers Reveal a One-Segmented Head in Tardigrades (Water Bears)
TLDR
The immunolabelling against serotonin, FMRFamide and α-tubulin reveals that the tardigrade brain is a dorsal, bilaterally symmetric structure that resembles the brain of onychophorans and arthropods rather than a circumoesophageal ring typical of cycloneuralians (nematodes and allies). Expand
The origins of the arthropod nervous system: insights from the Onychophora.
TLDR
An evolutionary scenario is suggested, by which the arthropod nervous system evolved from a system of orthogonally crossing nerve tracts present in both a presumed protostome ancestor and many extant worm-like invertebrates, including the onychophorans. Expand
A Cambrian micro-lobopodian and the evolution of arthropod locomotion and reproduction
TLDR
The lateral orientation of the limbs and their anchoring spines of the new lobopodian imply that early arthropods were crawlers rather than walkers, and the morphology of O. evamuellerae aids in a clearer picture of the early evolution of arthropoda. Expand
Cryptic Speciation in Brazilian Epiperipatus (Onychophora: Peripatidae) Reveals an Underestimated Diversity among the Peripatid Velvet Worms
TLDR
The findings suggest high cryptic species diversity and endemism among the neotropical Peripatidae and demonstrate that the combination of morphological and molecular approaches is helpful for clarifying the taxonomy and species diversity of this apparently large and diverse onychophoran group. Expand
Velvet worm development links myriapods with chelicerates
TLDR
These findings provide, to the knowledge, first morphological/embryological support for the monophyly of the Paradoxopoda and suggest that the mandible might have evolved twice within the arthropods. Expand
A living fossil tale of Pangaean biogeography
TLDR
A time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of Onychophora (velvet worms), an ancient and exclusively terrestrial panarthropod group distributed throughout former Pangaean landmasses, demonstrates that trans-oceanic dispersal does not need be invoked to explain contemporary distributions, and reveals that the early diversification of the group pre-dates the break-up of Pangaea. Expand
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