Selective neuronal staining in tardigrades and onychophorans provides insights into the evolution of segmental ganglia in panarthropods
The organisation of the nervous system in three tardigrade species using antisera directed against tyrosinated and acetylated tubulin, the amine transmitter serotonin, and the invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFamide, allatostatin and perisulfakinin shows correspondences that support the homology of segmental ganglia in tardsigrades and arthropods.
Analysis of the Opsin Repertoire in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini Provides Insights into the Evolution of Opsin Genes in Panarthropoda
The phylogeny of broadly sampled metazoan opsin genes is reconstructed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods in conjunction with carefully selected substitution models and suggests that the last common ancestor of Bilateria possessed six opsins: Two r-opsins, one c-opsin, and three Group 4 opsin, one of which was lost in the ecdysozoan lineage.
Diversity and evolution of the transposable element repertoire in arthropods with particular reference to insects
A standardized characterization and an order-level comparison of arthropod TE repertoires, encompassing 62 insect and 11 outgroup species, shed light on common patterns and reveal lineage-specific differences in content and evolution of TEs in insects.
A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms), with notes on nomenclature and status of names
An updated checklist for the two extant onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Perip atopsidae, along with an assessment of the status of each species is presented, following the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Neural Markers Reveal a One-Segmented Head in Tardigrades (Water Bears)
The immunolabelling against serotonin, FMRFamide and α-tubulin reveals that the tardigrade brain is a dorsal, bilaterally symmetric structure that resembles the brain of onychophorans and arthropods rather than a circumoesophageal ring typical of cycloneuralians (nematodes and allies).
A revision of brain composition in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggests that the tritocerebrum evolved in arthropods
It is suggested that the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda possessed a brain consisting of protocerebrum and deutocere brum whereas the tritocere Brum evolved in arthropods.
A Cambrian micro-lobopodian and the evolution of arthropod locomotion and reproduction
The lateral orientation of the limbs and their anchoring spines of the new lobopodian imply that early arthropods were crawlers rather than walkers, and the morphology of O. evamuellerae aids in a clearer picture of the early evolution of arthropoda.
Cryptic Speciation in Brazilian Epiperipatus (Onychophora: Peripatidae) Reveals an Underestimated Diversity among the Peripatid Velvet Worms
The findings suggest high cryptic species diversity and endemism among the neotropical Peripatidae and demonstrate that the combination of morphological and molecular approaches is helpful for clarifying the taxonomy and species diversity of this apparently large and diverse onychophoran group.
Neural development in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggests a step-wise evolution of segmentation in the nervous system of Panarthropoda.
Opsins in onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods.
It is concluded that the diversification of visual pigments and color vision evolved in arthropods, along with the evolution of compound eyes-one of the most sophisticated visual systems known.