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Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. I. Metabolic energy consumption as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals.
This series of four papers investigates the link between the energetics and the mechanics of terrestrial locomotion using data from 62 avian and mammalian species to formulate a new allometric equation relating mass-specific rates of oxygen consumed during locomotion at a constant speed to speed and body mass.
Allometry of the leg muscles of mammals
Differences between primates; fissipedes, bovids and bipedal hoppers are demonstrated and departures from geometric similarity in mammals in general are noted and discussed.
Energetic cost of carrying loads: have African women discovered an economic way?
It is found that both the Luo and Kikuyu women could carry loads of up to 20% of their body weight without increasing their rate of energy consumption and some element of training and/or anatomical change since childhood may allow these women to carry heavy loads economically.
Urea excretion as a strategy for survival in a fish living in a very alkaline environment
The tilapia fish Oreochromls alcalicus grahami, the only fish living in Lake Magadi, an alkaline soda lake in the Kenyan Rift Valley, excretes exclusively urea and has ornithine–urea cycle enzymes in its liver.
Mechanics of running of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)
Ostriches have been filmed running fast in their natural habitat. A female ostrich has been dissected and the principal bones, muscles and tendons in a leg have been measured. It is calculated that
Allometry of the limb bones of mammals from shrews (Sorex) to elephant (Loxodonta)
Measurements have been made of the principal leg bones of 37 species representing almost the full range of sizes of terrestrial mammals, except in the family Bovidae in which the exponents for length are much nearer the value of 0·25 predicted by McMahon's (1973) theory of elastic similarity.