Levels of seven urinary phthalate metabolites in a human reference population.
It is strongly suggested that health-risk assessments for phthalate exposure in humans should include diethyl, dibutyl, and benzyl butyl phthalates.
The human health effects of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and PCBS (polychlorinated biphenyls) and an overview of organochlorines in public health.
The epidemiologic data reviewed provide no convincing evidence that organochlorines cause a large excess number of cancers, but evidence suggesting insidious effects of background exposure is of more general interest.
Research needs for the risk assessment of health and environmental effects of endocrine disruptors: a report of the U.S. EPA-sponsored workshop.
The hypothesis has been put forward that humans and wildlife species adverse suffered adverse health effects after exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and that research should focus primarily on effects on development of reproductive capability, on improved exposure assessment, and on the effects of mixtures.
Genotype/phenotype discordance for human arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) reveals a new slow-acetylator allele common in African-Americans.
Comparison of results from PCR-RFLP genotyping with caffeine metabolism phenotyping in 42 individuals suggested that an additional slow-acetylator allele was present in the sampled population, and a G > A base-change in codon 64 that caused a Arg > Glu amino acid substitution was found, termed the 'M4' allele, which apparently causes a slow- acetylation phenotype.
Genetic risk and carcinogen exposure: a common inherited defect of the carcinogen-metabolism gene glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) that increases susceptibility to bladder cancer.
- D. Bell, J. Taylor, D. Paulson, C. Robertson, J. Mohler, G. Lucier
- MedicineJournal of the National Cancer Institute
- 21 July 1993
These findings support a protective role for the GSTM1 gene in bladder cancer and suggest that 25% of all bladder cancer may be attributable to the at-risk GSTM 1 0/0 genotype.
Summary of the National Toxicology Program's report of the endocrine disruptors low-dose peer review.
The panel found that low-dose effects, as defined for this review, have been demonstrated in laboratory animals exposed to certain endocrine-active agents and indicate that the current testing paradigm used for assessments of reproductive and developmental toxicity should be revisited to see whether changes are needed regarding dose selection, animal-model selection, age when animals are evaluated, and the end points being measured following exposure to endocrine -active agents.
Characterization of the dose-response of CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 in the liver of female Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
The low level of TCDD-induced CyP1B1 expression in the liver relative to that of the CYP1A1CYP1A2 suggest that, if CYP 1B1 is involved in TCDd-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, its endogenous function is likely to be uniquenot overlapping with that of CYP2A1 or CYP3A2.
Ethnic variation in the CYP2E1 gene: polymorphism analysis of 695 African-Americans, European-Americans and Taiwanese.
A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method is used to determine the genotype frequency for each of these CYP2E1 RFLPs in 695 individuals of Taiwanese, African-American or European-American background.
A mechanistic model of effects of dioxin on gene expression in the rat liver.
- M. Kohn, G. Lucier, G. Clark, C. Sewall, A. Tritscher, C. Portier
- BiologyToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
- 1 May 1993
A mathematical model has been constructed to describe TCDD-mediated alterations in hepatic proteins in the rat and successfully reproduced the observed tissue distribution of T CDD, the concentrations of CYP1A1 and CYP 1A2, and the effects of TCDd on the Ah, estrogen, and EGF receptors over a wide dose range.
Serum levels of TCDD and dioxin-like chemicals in Rhesus monkeys chronically exposed to dioxin: correlation of increased serum PCB levels with endometriosis.
- S. Rier, W. Turner, D. Martin, R. Morris, G. Lucier, G. Clark
- Biology, MedicineToxicological Sciences
It is demonstrated that the serum levels of TCDD and specific dioxin-like PHAH congeners were increased in TCDd-treated animals with endometriosis 13 years after the T CDD exposure, and the severity of disease correlated with the serum concentration of 3,3',4,4'-TCB.