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Evaluation of the Therapeutic Usefulness of Botulinum Neurotoxin B, C1, E, and F Compared with the Long Lasting Type A
Seven types (A–G) of botulinum neurotoxin target peripheral cholinergic neurons where they selectively proteolyze SNAP-25, syntaxin1, and synaptobrevin, and SNARE proteins responsible for transmitter release, to cause neuromuscular paralysis but of different durations. Expand
Sudden death syndrome of soybean: Fusarium solani as incitant and relation of Heterodera glycines to disease severity
Two morphologically distinct forms of Fusarium solani, designated FS-A and FS-B,were isolated from soybean plants with symptoms of sudden death syndrome, a disease of unproven etiology. Form FS-A wasExpand
Synaptobrevin I mediates exocytosis of CGRP from sensory neurons and inhibition by botulinum toxins reflects their anti-nociceptive potential
Findings implicate isoform Sbr I in exocytosis from large dense-core vesicles together with SNAP25 and raises the functional implications for other cells previously unrecognised. Expand
Activation of TRPV1 Mediates Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Release, Which Excites Trigeminal Sensory Neurons and Is Attenuated by a Retargeted Botulinum Toxin with Anti-Nociceptive Potential
The basal release of proinflammatory calcitonin gene-related peptide was shown to increase the excitability of trigeminal sensory neurons in brainstem slices via C GRP1 receptors because the effect was negated by an antagonist, CGRP8–37. Expand
Botulinum neurotoxin C1 cleaves both syntaxin and SNAP-25 in intact and permeabilized chromaffin cells: correlation with its blockade of catecholamine release.
It is concluded that syntaxin 1A/B and SNAP-25 are cleaved in intact cells poisoned with only C1, and interesting observations suggest that C1 can only efficiently cleave SNAP- 25 in intact Cells, possibly due to the existence therein of a unique conformation and/or the participation of accessory factors. Expand
Novel Chimeras of Botulinum Neurotoxins A and E Unveil Contributions from the Binding, Translocation, and Protease Domains to Their Functional Characteristics*
Proof of principle is provided for tailoring the pharmacological properties of these toxins by protein engineering. Expand
Cotton resistance to root-knot nematode. II: Post-penetration development
The post-penetration development of root-knot nematode was slower, fewer developed to adult females, and root galls were fewer and smaller on the resistant genotypes than on the susceptible M-8. Expand
Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Spore-forming Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria on Cotton.
Overall, results indicate that B. velezensis strains Bve2 and Bve12, B. mojavensis strain Bmo3, and Mixture 2 have potential to reduce M. incognita population density and to enhance growth of cotton when applied as in-furrow sprays at planting. Expand
A role for the interchain disulfide or its participating thiols in the internalization of botulinum neurotoxin A revealed by a toxin derivative that binds to ecto-acceptors and inhibits transmitter
The abolition of the toxicity of extracellularly applied botulinum neurotoxin A by the cleavage of both disulfides, and the alkylation of the half-cystines involved, results from ineffective uptake. Expand
Interrelationship of Heterodera glycines and Fusarium solani in Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean.
Numbers of Heterodera glycines cysts and second-stage juveniles were significantly lower in plots infested with F. solani + H. glycines than with the nematode alone. Expand