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Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey.
The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, theExpand
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New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory
Goal-setting theory is summarized regarding the effectiveness of specific, difficult goals; the relationship of goals to affect; the mediators of goal effects; the relation of goals to self-efficacy;Expand
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Goal setting and task performance: 1969–1980.
Abstract : A review of both laboratory and field studies on the effect of setting goals when learning or performing a task found that specific, challenging goals led more often to higher performanceExpand
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Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research, and Practice
Editor's Comments Preface: Person-Environment Fit 13 Critical Incidents in the Life of a Practitioner/Scientist Part I The 20th Century: Understanding the Past 1900-1925 Experimental PsychologyExpand
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Work motivation theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century.
In the first Annual Review of Psychology chapter since 1977 devoted exclusively to work motivation, we examine progress made in theory and research on needs, traits, values, cognition, and affect asExpand
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New developments in goal setting and task performance.
Introduction / Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham -- Goal setting theory, 1990 / Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham -- The economic value of goal setting to employers / Frank L. Schmidt -- StretchExpand
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What Should we do About Motivation Theory? Six Recommendations for the Twenty-First Century
We present six recommendations for building theories of work motivation that are more valid, more complete, broader in scope, and more useful to practitioners than existing theories. (1) IntegrateExpand
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The Application of Goal Setting to Sports
Studies of goal setting both in organizations and the laboratory have found that (a) specific, difficult goals lead to better performance than vague or easy goals; (b) short-term goals can facilitateExpand
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New developments in and directions for goal-setting research.
Abstract. Goal setting is an “open” theory built on inductive findings from empirical research. The present paper briefly summarizes this theory. Emphasis is then given to findings that have beenExpand
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