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Evidence for a Novel Marine Harmful Algal Bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) Transfer from Land to Sea Otters
TLDR
This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine “harmful algal bloom” in the Pacific coastal environment; that of hepatotoxic shellfish poisoning (HSP), suggesting that animals and humans are at risk from microcystin poisoning when consuming shellfish harvested at the land-sea interface. Expand
Domoic acid toxicity in Californian sea lions (Zalophus californianus): clinical signs, treatment and survival
TLDR
Eighty-one Californian sea lions with signs of domoic acid toxicity stranded along the coast of California in 1998 and in 2000, a further 184 sea lions stranded with similar clinical signs, but the strandings occurred both during detectable algal blooms and after the blooms had subsided. Expand
Novel symptomatology and changing epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): an increasing risk to marine mammal health
TLDR
It is indicated that domoic acid causes chronic damage to California sea lions and that these health effects are increasing, and a second novel neurological syndrome characterized by epilepsy is described here associated with chronic consequences of previous sub-lethal exposure to the toxin. Expand
Harmful algal blooms along the North American west coast region: History, trends, causes, and impacts
TLDR
The state of knowledge on HABs along the west coast is presented as a step toward meeting the need for integration of HAB outreach, research, and management efforts. Expand
A shift in the dominant toxin-producing algal species in central California alters phycotoxins in food webs.
TLDR
Changes in the taxonomic structure of the phytoplankton community influences the nature of the algal toxins that move through local food webs and emphasizes the importance of monitoring for the full suite of toxic algae, rather than just one genus or species. Expand
The emergence of Cochlodinium along the California Coast (USA)
Abstract A sudden and nearly synchronous emergence of the red tide forming dinoflagellate Cochlodinium along more than 800 km of California coastline was initially observed in late summer 2004.Expand
Trophic Transfer of the Harmful Algal Toxin Domoic Acid as a Cause of Death in a Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) Stranding in Southern California
TLDR
DA intoxication was identified as the cause of mortality of this animal, expanding on the limited understanding of the impacts of DA-producing HABs on large whales. Expand
Application of Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) for field detection of the hydrophilic phycotoxins domoic acid and saxitoxin in coastal California
TLDR
This study is the first to evaluate SPATT deployments in U.S. waters and demonstrate the applicability of SPATT toward detection of hydrophilic phycotoxins in the field, highlighting the ubiquity of low level or transient toxin events in the environment. Expand
A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection.
TLDR
Evidence to support the point-source character of this event include the striking spatial and temporal clustering of cases and detection of high concentrations of anti-S. Expand
Detection of norwalk-like virus in shellfish implicated in illness.
TLDR
Using a newly developed and sensitive method, an NLV G2 strain was identified in 2 oyster samples implicated in a 1998 California outbreak involving 171 cases, and capsid primers demonstrated a greater specificity of PCR detection than did polymerase primers. Expand
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