Evidence for a Novel Marine Harmful Algal Bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) Transfer from Land to Sea Otters
This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine “harmful algal bloom” in the Pacific coastal environment; that of hepatotoxic shellfish poisoning (HSP), suggesting that animals and humans are at risk from microcystin poisoning when consuming shellfish harvested at the land-sea interface.
Domoic acid toxicity in Californian sea lions (Zalophus californianus): clinical signs, treatment and survival
Eighty-one Californian sea lions with signs of domoic acid toxicity stranded along the coast of California in 1998 and in 2000, a further 184 sea lions stranded with similar clinical signs, but the strandings occurred both during detectable algal blooms and after the blooms had subsided.
Harmful algal blooms along the North American west coast region: History, trends, causes, and impacts
Novel symptomatology and changing epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): an increasing risk to marine mammal health
- T. Goldstein, J. Mazet, F. Gulland
- Environmental ScienceProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological…
- 7 February 2008
It is indicated that domoic acid causes chronic damage to California sea lions and that these health effects are increasing, and a second novel neurological syndrome characterized by epilepsy is described here associated with chronic consequences of previous sub-lethal exposure to the toxin.
A shift in the dominant toxin-producing algal species in central California alters phycotoxins in food webs.
The emergence of Cochlodinium along the California Coast (USA)
Trophic Transfer of the Harmful Algal Toxin Domoic Acid as a Cause of Death in a Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) Stranding in Southern California
DA intoxication was identified as the cause of mortality of this animal, expanding on the limited understanding of the impacts of DA-producing HABs on large whales.
Application of Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) for field detection of the hydrophilic phycotoxins domoic acid and saxitoxin in coastal California
This study is the first to evaluate SPATT deployments in U.S. waters and demonstrate the applicability of SPATT toward detection of hydrophilic phycotoxins in the field, highlighting the ubiquity of low level or transient toxin events in the environment.
A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection.
THE ROLE OF DOMOIC ACID IN ABORTION AND PREMATURE PARTURITION OF CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS) ON SAN MIGUEL ISLAND, CALIFORNIA
Results suggest that domoic acid contributes to reproductive failure on California sea lion rookeries, and the etiology of abortion and premature parturition was varied.