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fMRI during affect discrimination in bipolar affective disorder.
OBJECTIVE It has been hypothesized that disturbances in affect may represent distinct etiologic factors for bipolar affective disorder. The neural mechanisms mediating affective processes and theirExpand
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Spatial working memory in heavy cannabis users: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study
RationaleMany neuropsychological studies have documented deficits in working memory among recent heavy cannabis users. However, little is known about the effects of cannabis on brainExpand
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The lifetime prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and dependence in Americans: current best estimates.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Although various surveys have tracked the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use in American teenagers and young adults, no recent surveys have assessed theExpand
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Long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse: a looming public health concern?
BACKGROUND The problem of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse has recently generated widespread public and media attention. Most AAS abusers, however, are not elite athletes like those portrayedExpand
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Illicit anabolic–androgenic steroid use
The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did notExpand
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Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder.
AIMS Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely used illicitly to gain muscle and lose body fat. Here we review the accumulating human and animal evidence showing that AAS may cause a distinctExpand
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Over-the-Counter Drug Use in Gymnasiums: An Underrecognized Substance Abuse Problem?
Objective: Many individuals, attempting to gain muscle or lose fat, use ‘dietary supplements’. Though widely available over the counter or by mail order in America and Europe, some of theseExpand
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Past anabolic-androgenic steroid use among men admitted for substance abuse treatment: an underrecognized problem?
BACKGROUND Recent reports suggest that anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) may cause mood disorders or dependence syndromes and may help to introduce some individuals to opioid abuse. At present,Expand
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Testosterone gel supplementation for men with refractory depression: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
OBJECTIVE Testosterone supplementation may produce antidepressant effects in men, but until recently it has required cumbersome parenteral administration. In an 8-week randomized, placebo-controlledExpand
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Features of men with anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: A comparison with nondependent AAS users and with AAS nonusers.
BACKGROUND Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) dependence has been a recognized syndrome for some 20 years, but remains poorly understood. METHODS We evaluated three groups of experienced maleExpand
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