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High power electron guns for industrial use work in the range of power of more than 10 kW up to 1200 kW. The only suitable principle for this purpose is that used in axial guns. Elements necessary… (More)
Abstract We describe the process of electron beam evaporation with deposition rates from 100 to some 1000 μm min -1 and discuss the effects occurring at these high rates as well as their influence on… (More)
Abstract The major problems of today, e.g. the shortages of certain raw materials, the increase in energy costs and growing environmental pollution, have led to fresh applications of physical vapour… (More)
Axial guns of 250 kW yield deposition rates of 20 μm/s. The scatterting losses at the generated vapor cloud are in the order of 10%–20%. High power densities and suitable electron‐beam programming… (More)
Abstract It is commonly known that electron beam evaporation allows the use of high deposition rates. In large-scale industrial applications rates of up to 20 μm s −1 are already in use, e.g. for the… (More)