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A functional classification scheme for beta-lactamases and its correlation with molecular structure.
A classification scheme for b-lactamases based on functional characteristics is presented. Three major groups of enzymes are defined by their substrate and inhibitor profiles: group 1Expand
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AmpC β-Lactamases
  • G. Jacoby
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Clinical Microbiology Reviews
  • 1 January 2009
SUMMARY AmpC β-lactamases are clinically important cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many of the Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms, where they mediate resistance toExpand
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Updated Functional Classification of β-Lactamases
  • K. Bush, G. Jacoby
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
  • 7 December 2009
ABSTRACT Two classification schemes for β-lactamases are currently in use. The molecular classification is based on the amino acid sequence and divides β-lactamases into class A, C, and D enzymesExpand
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The worldwide emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance.
Fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging in gram-negative pathogens worldwide. The traditional understanding that quinolone resistance is acquired only through mutation and transmitted only verticallyExpand
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Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance: a Multifaceted Threat
SUMMARY Although plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was thought not to exist before its discovery in 1998, the past decade has seen an explosion of research characterizing this phenomenon.Expand
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Fluoroquinolone-modifying enzyme: a new adaptation of a common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase
Antimicrobial-modifying resistance enzymes have traditionally been class specific, having coevolved with the antibiotics they inactivate. Fluoroquinolones, antimicrobial agents used extensively inExpand
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qnr Prevalence in Ceftazidime-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from the United States
ABSTRACT We screened 313 ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates obtained in the United States from 1999 to 2004 for all three known qnr genes. A qnr gene was present in 20% of KlebsiellaExpand
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Quinolone resistance from a transferable plasmid
BACKGROUND Bacteria can mutate to acquire quinolone resistance by target alterations or diminished drug accumulation. Plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones in clinical isolates has been claimedExpand
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Mechanisms of resistance to quinolones.
  • G. Jacoby
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Clinical infectious diseases : an official…
  • 15 July 2005
The increased use of fluoroquinolones has led to increasing resistance to these antimicrobials, with rates of resistance that vary by both organism and geographic region. Resistance toExpand
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Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli from Shanghai, China
ABSTRACT Although quinolone resistance usually results from chromosomal mutations, recent studies indicate that quinolone resistance can also be plasmid mediated. The gene responsible, qnr, isExpand
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