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Culture′s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values
In his bestselling book Culture's Consequences, Geert Hofstede proposed four dimensions on which the differences among national cultures can be understood: Individualism, Power Distance, Uncertainty
Culture′s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations
Values and Culture Data Collection, Treatment and Validation Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Individualism and Collectivism Masculinity and Femininity Long versus Short-Term Orientation Cultures
Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context
This article describes briefly the Hofstede model of six dimensions of national cultures: Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity, Long/ Short Term
The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories
This paper summarizes the author's recently published findings about differences in people's work-related values among 50 countries. In view of these differences, ethnocentric management theories
Cultural constraints in management theories
Executive Overview Management as the word is presently used is an American invention. In other parts of the world not only the practices but the entire concept of management may differ, and the
Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases.
Geert Hofstede University of Limburg Bram Neuijen University of Groningen Denise Davat Ohayv Institute for Research on intercultural Cooperation Geert Sanders University of Groningen This paper
Cultural dimensions in management and planning
The nature of management skills is such that they are culturally specific: a management technique or philosophy that is appropriate in one national culture is not necessarily appropriate in another.