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The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. I. Development, use, and reliability.
In a study involving four raters and 40 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder at various stages of treatment, interrater reliability for the total Yale-Brown Scale score and each of the 10 individual items was excellent, with high degree of internal consistency among all item scores demonstrated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Expand
The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. II. Validity.
Results from a previously reported placebo-controlled trial of fluvoxamine in 42 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed that the Yale- Brown Scale was sensitive to drug-induced changes and that reductions in Yale-Brown Scale scores specifically reflected improvement in obsessive- compulsive disorder symptoms. Expand
Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients
A first placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial to assess the treatment effects of a single dose of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in patients with depression suggests a potential role for NMDA receptor-modulating drugs in the treatment of depression. Expand
Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, ketamine, in humans. Psychotomimetic, perceptual, cognitive, and neuroendocrine responses.
These data indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists produce a broad range of symptoms, behaviors, and cognitive deficits that resemble aspects of endogenous psychoses, particularly schizophrenia and dissociative states. Expand
A molecular and cellular theory of depression.
These findings constitute the framework for an updated molecular and cellular hypothesis of depression, which posits that stress-induced vulnerability and the therapeutic action of antidepressant treatments occur via intracellular mechanisms that decrease or increase, respectively, neurotrophic factors necessary for the survival and function of particular neurons. Expand
Serotonin function and the mechanism of antidepressant action. Reversal of antidepressant-induced remission by rapid depletion of plasma tryptophan.
The behavioral effects of rapid tryptophan depletion in patients in antidepressant-induced remission and the therapeutic effects of some antidepressant drugs may be dependent on serotonin availability are investigated. Expand
Tryptophan Depletion During Continuous CSF Sampling in Healthy Human Subjects
Data suggest that TRP depletion results in substantial declines in central 5-HT turnover, which is similar to that observed in healthy adult subjects after a one-day low-TRP diet and a TRP-free amino acid drink. Expand
Abnormal noradrenergic function in posttraumatic stress disorder.
In the patients with PTSD, yohimbine induced significant increases in core PTSD symptoms, such as intrusive traumatic thoughts, emotional numbing, and grief, consistent with a large body of preclinical data that indicated that uncontrollable stress produces substantial increases in noradrenergic neuronal function. Expand
Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)
This rating scale is designed to rate the severity and type of symptoms in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In general, the items depend on the patient's report; however, the finalExpand