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Toward a phylogenetic classification of Primates based on DNA evidence complemented by fossil evidence.
A provisional primate classification based on DNA evidence and the time scale provided by fossils and the model of local molecular clocks has all named taxa represent clades and assigns the same taxonomic rank to those clades of roughly equivalent age.
Primitive Early Eocene bat from Wyoming and the evolution of flight and echolocation
A new bat is described from the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming, USA, with features that are more primitive than seen in any previously known bat, supporting a ‘flight first’ hypothesis for chiropteran evolution.
4. Wasatchian Through Duchesnean Biochronology
Fossil Evidence and the Origin of Bats
A new phylogenetic analysis indicates that several early fossil bats are consecutive sister taxa to the extant crown group (including megabats), and suggests a single origin for the order, at least by the late Paleocene.
Primate postcrania from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar
- R. Ciochon, P. Gingerich, G. Gunnell, E. Simons
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 3 July 2001
The humerus and ulna indicate that Pondaungia was capable of a wide variety of forelimb movements, with great mobility at the shoulder joint, and Morphology of the distal calcaneus indicates that the hind feet were mobile at the transverse tarsal joint.
New assessment of Pondaungia and Amphipithecus (Primates) from the late middle Eocene of Myanmar, with a comment on 'Amphipithecidae'
Dental and cranial resemblances between pondaungines and anthropoids are probably functional convergences resulting from a diet consisting of hard and tough food objects utilized by these Southeast Asian primates.
Small mammals, xenarthrans, and marine mammals
Magnetostratigraphy Across the Wasatchian/Bridgerian Nalma Boundary (Early to Middle Eocene) in the Western Green River Basin, Wyoming
- W. Clyde, J. Zonneveld, J. Stamatakos, G. Gunnell, W. Bartels
- Geography, Environmental ScienceThe Journal of Geology
- 1 November 1997
New paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic data from the western Green River Basin of Wyoming provide a magnetobiostratigraphic framework to correlate the late Wasatchian through early Bridgerian North…
New Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from the Late Eocene and Early Oligocene, Fayum Depression, Egypt
Four new genera and six new species of microchiropteran bats are described here from the late Eocene (37–34 Ma) of the Fayum Depression in northern Egypt, including the first and only African record of a fossil rhinopomatid and the earliest African records of megadermatids, emballonurids, and vespertilionids.
Evolutionary History of Bats: Systematics and paleobiogeography of early bats
The term “early bats” is restricted to the species known from the Early and early-middle Middle Eocene (Ypresian and Lutetian, and global equivalents, encompassing European mammalian reference levels MP7 through MP13).