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ON THE CONDITIONAL NATURE OF NEOTROPICAL CATERPILLAR DEFENSES AGAINST THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES
Lepidopteran larvae possess multiple defenses against a diverse group of predators and parasitoids. Many studies of larval defenses have determined whether a defense works against a particular enemy,Expand
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Host specificity of Lepidoptera in tropical and temperate forests
For numerous taxa, species richness is much higher in tropical than in temperate zone habitats. A major challenge in community ecology and evolutionary biogeography is to reveal the mechanismsExpand
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Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: implications of global warming.
Insect outbreaks are expected to increase in frequency and intensity with projected changes in global climate through direct effects of climate change on insect populations and through disruption ofExpand
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The insect immune response and other putative defenses as effective predictors of parasitism.
Parasitic wasps and flies (parasitoids) exert high mortality on caterpillars, and previous studies have demonstrated that most primary and secondary defenses do not protect caterpillars againstExpand
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PREDICTING NATURAL‐ENEMY RESPONSES TO HERBIVORES IN NATURAL AND MANAGED SYSTEMS
One underutilized approach for bridging the gap between basic research on plant–insect–enemy interactions and applied research on biological control is to examine prey defensive characteristics asExpand
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Fitness Consequences of Herbivory: Impacts on Asexual Reproduction of Tropical Rain Forest Understory Plants
Although herbivory can affect plant fitness, few studies have investigated the effects of herbivory on the fitness of plants that reproduce vegetatively via fragmentation. Plants that reproduce inExpand
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Ecology, Natural History, and Larval Descriptions of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Erebidae) from a Cloud Forest in the Eastern Andes of Ecuador
ABSTRACT Adults and larvae in the subfamily Arctiinae (family Erebidae), along with their host plants and the parasitic wasps and flies that attack them, are important components of mostExpand
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Novel Insights into Tritrophic Interaction Diversity and Chemical Ecology Using 16 Years of Volunteer-Supported Research
Sixteen years ago, a schoolteacher from New Jersey collected a caterpillar in a Costa Rican rainforest. When a parasitoid emerged several days later, it became the first data point of a long-termExpand
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The Immature Stages and Natural History of Veladyris pardalis (Salvin, 1869) in Eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Lthomiinae)
Abstract We describe the immature stages and oviposition behavior of Veladyris pardalis (Salvin, 1869) from northeastern Ecuador. An unidentified species of Solanum (Solanaceae) is the larval foodExpand
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Weighing Defensive and Nutritive Roles of Ant Mutualists Across a Tropical Altitudinal Gradient
The diversity of mutualistic interactions influences many ecological components of community structure, including biodiversity and ecosystem stability. However, mutualistic interactions are not wellExpand
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