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PD-1 and its ligands in tolerance and immunity.
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, deliver inhibitory signals that regulate the balance between T cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. Immune responses to foreignExpand
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Restoring function in exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection
Functional impairment of antigen-specific T cells is a defining characteristic of many chronic infections, but the underlying mechanisms of T-cell dysfunction are not well understood. To address thisExpand
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Engagement of the Pd-1 Immunoinhibitory Receptor by a Novel B7 Family Member Leads to Negative Regulation of Lymphocyte Activation
PD-1 is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells. Mice deficient in PD-1 exhibit a breakdown of peripheral tolerance and demonstrate multiple autoimmuneExpand
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The B7 family revisited.
The discovery of new functions for the original B7 family members, together with the identification of additional B7 and CD28 family members, have revealed new ways in which the B7:CD28 familyExpand
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Coregulation of CD8+ T cell exhaustion by multiple inhibitory receptors during chronic viral infection
T cell exhaustion often occurs during chronic infection and prevents optimal viral control. The molecular pathways involved in T cell exhaustion remain poorly understood. Here we show that exhaustedExpand
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PD-1 expression on HIV-specific T cells is associated with T-cell exhaustion and disease progression
Functional impairment of T cells is characteristic of many chronic mouse and human viral infections. The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1; also known as PDCD1), a negative regulator ofExpand
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PD-L1 regulates the development, maintenance, and function of induced regulatory T cells
Both the programmed death (PD) 1–PD-ligand (PD-L) pathway and regulatory T (T reg) cells are instrumental to the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. We demonstrate that PD-L1 has a pivotal role inExpand
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PD-1 blockade with nivolumab in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma.
BACKGROUND Preclinical studies suggest that Reed-Sternberg cells exploit the programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway to evade immune detection. In classic Hodgkin's lymphoma, alterations in chromosomeExpand
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Programmed death-1 ligand 1 interacts specifically with the B7-1 costimulatory molecule to inhibit T cell responses.
Pathways in the B7:CD28 family of costimulatory molecules regulate T cell activation and tolerance. B7-dependent responses in Cd28(-/-)Ctla4(-/-) T cells together with reports of stimulatory andExpand
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CTLA-4 can function as a negative regulator of T cell activation.
CD28 and CTLA-4 are related glycoproteins found on T cells. Ligation of CD28 following antigen receptor engagement provides a costimulatory signal required for T cell activation. Anti-CTLA-4Expand
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