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Smoothened signaling in vertebrates is facilitated by a G protein-coupled receptor kinase.
Smoothened, a heptahelical membrane protein, functions as the transducer of Hedgehog signaling. The kinases that modulate Smoothened have been thoroughly analyzed in flies. However, little is knownExpand
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ß-Arrestin 2 Regulates Zebrafish Development Through the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway
β-arrestins are multifunctional proteins that act as scaffolds and transducers of intracellular signals from heptahelical transmembrane-spanning receptors (7TMR). Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, which usesExpand
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Smoothened Signal Transduction Is Promoted by G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2
ABSTRACT Deregulation of the Sonic hedgehog pathway has been implicated in an increasing number of human cancers. In this pathway, the seven-transmembrane (7TM) signaling protein Smoothened regulatesExpand
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Cell-Free Synthesis of Pectin (Identification and Partial Characterization of Polygalacturonate 4-[alpha]-Galacturonosyltransferase and Its Products from Membrane Preparations of Tobacco
Polygalacturonate 4-[alpha]-galacturonosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.43) activity has been identified in microsomal membranes isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Samsun) cell-suspensionExpand
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Grk5l controls heart development by limiting mTOR signaling during symmetry breaking.
The correct asymmetric placement of inner organs is termed situs solitus and is determined early during development. Failure in symmetry breaking results in conditions ranging from randomized organExpand
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Cell free synthesis of the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan
Abstract Polygalacturonate 4-α-galacturonosyltransferase (PGA-GalAT) (EC 2.4.1.43), the enzyme that synthesizes the pectin polysaccharide homogalacturonan (HGA), has been identified in microsomalExpand
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High-level expression of a functional single-chain human chorionic gonadotropin-luteinizing hormone receptor ectodomain complex in insect cells.
Reproductive capacity in primates is dependent on the high-affinity binding of the glycoprotein hormones LH and human (h)CG to the large ectodomain (ECD) of their common receptor (LHR). OurExpand
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Structural analysis of yoked chorionic gonadotropin-luteinizing hormone receptor ectodomain complexes by circular dichroic spectroscopy.
Binding of the heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, chorionic gonadotropin (CG), occurs to the heptahelical LH receptor N-terminal ectodomain (ECD), a large portion of which has been modeled as aExpand
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Consequences of Single-Chain Translation on the Structures of Two Chorionic Gonadotropin Yoked Analogs in α-β and β-α Configurations
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a placental-derived heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, which, through the binding and activation of the LH receptor, rescues the corpus luteum and maintainsExpand
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N-terminal Tyrosine Modulation of the Endocytic Adaptor Function of the β-Arrestins*
The highly homologous β-arrestin1 and -2 adaptor proteins play important roles in the function of G protein-coupled receptors. Either β-arrestin variant can function as a molecular chaperone forExpand
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