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Update of the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable Preclinical Recommendations
The initial Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations published in 1999 were intended to improve the quality of preclinical studies of purported acute stroke therapies.Expand
Inflammatory Mediators and Stroke: New Opportunities for Novel Therapeutics
Contrary to previous dogmas, it is now well established that brain cells can produce cytokines and chemokines, and can express adhesion molecules that enable an in situ inflammatory reaction. TheExpand
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha. A mediator of focal ischemic brain injury.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine that rapidly upregulates in the brain after injury. The present study was designed to explore theExpand
Inflammation and Stroke: Putative Role for Cytokines, Adhesion Molecules and iNOS in Brain Response to Ischemia
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. Yet, in spite of substantial research and development efforts, no specific therapy for stroke is available. SeveralExpand
Proteolytic Cascade Enzymes Increase in Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat
Cerebral infarction initiates a cascade of molecular events, leading to proteolytic cell death. Matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs) are neutral proteases involved in extracellular matrixExpand
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in ischemic neurons.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a cytokine with diverse proinflammatory actions, including endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule expression. Since leukocytesExpand
Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase decreases cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improves cardiac function after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.
BACKGROUND Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays an important role in apoptotic cell death. The role of p38 MAPK in myocardial injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion, anExpand
The Role of Inflammation and Cytokines in Brain Injury
The original notion that the brain represented an "immune-privileged" organ lacking the capability to produce an inflammatory response to an injury, would appear no longer tenable. Indeed,Expand
Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase enhances Ischemia/Reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in cultured cardiac myocytes and exaggerates reperfusion injury in isolated perfused heart.
Three major mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase (JNK), have been identified in the cardiomyocyte,Expand
Ischemic preconditioning and brain tolerance: temporal histological and functional outcomes, protein synthesis requirement, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and early gene expression.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A short duration of ischemia (ie, ischemic preconditioning [PC]) can provide significant brain protection to subsequent ischemic events (ie, ischemic tolerance [IT]). TheExpand