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Methylation of a CTCF-dependent boundary controls imprinted expression of the Igf2 gene
The expression of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) and H19 genes is imprinted. Although these neighbouring genes share an enhancer, H19 is expressed only from the maternal allele, and Igf2Expand
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A 5′ element of the chicken β-globin domain serves as an insulator in human erythroid cells and protects against position effect in Drosophila
We have characterized an element near the 5' boundary of the chicken beta-globin domain that insulates a reporter gene from the activating effects of a nearby beta-globin locus control region (5'HS2)Expand
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The Protein CTCF Is Required for the Enhancer Blocking Activity of Vertebrate Insulators
An insulator is a DNA sequence that can act as a barrier to the influences of neighboring cis-acting elements, preventing gene activation, for example, when located between an enhancer and aExpand
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Controlling the double helix
Chromatin is the complex of DNA and proteins in which the genetic material is packaged inside the cells of organisms with nuclei. Chromatin structure is dynamic and exerts profound control over geneExpand
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H3.3/H2A.Z double variant-containing nucleosomes mark ‘nucleosome-free regions’ of active promoters and other regulatory regions in the human genome
To understand how chromatin structure is organized by different histone variants, we have measured the genome-wide distribution of nucleosome core particles (NCPs) containing the histone variantsExpand
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Insulators: exploiting transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms
Insulators are DNA sequence elements that prevent inappropriate interactions between adjacent chromatin domains. One type of insulator establishes domains that separate enhancers and promoters toExpand
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Insulators: many functions, many mechanisms.
Eukaryotic genomes are organized into domains containing individual genes and gene clusters that have distinct patterns of expression both during development and in differentiated cells. TheseExpand
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Nucleosome stability mediated by histone variants H3.3 and H2A.Z.
Nucleosomes containing the histone variant H3.3 tend to be clustered in vivo in the neighborhood of transcriptionally active genes and over regulatory elements. It has not been clear, however,Expand
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CTCF tethers an insulator to subnuclear sites, suggesting shared insulator mechanisms across species.
Insulators can block an enhancer of one gene from activating a promoter on another nearby gene. Almost all described vertebrate insulators require binding of the regulatory protein CTCF for theirExpand
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NMR structure of a specific DNA complex of Zn-containing DNA binding domain of GATA-1.
The three-dimensional solution structure of a complex between the DNA binding domain of the chicken erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 and its cognate DNA site has been determined withExpand
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