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Methylation of a CTCF-dependent boundary controls imprinted expression of the Igf2 gene
The results reveal that DNA methylation can control gene expression by modulating enhancer access to the gene promoter through regulation of an enhancer boundary. Expand
A 5′ element of the chicken β-globin domain serves as an insulator in human erythroid cells and protects against position effect in Drosophila
We have characterized an element near the 5' boundary of the chicken beta-globin domain that insulates a reporter gene from the activating effects of a nearby beta-globin locus control region (5'HS2)Expand
The Protein CTCF Is Required for the Enhancer Blocking Activity of Vertebrate Insulators
A 42 bp fragment of the chicken beta-globin insulator is identified that is both necessary and sufficient for enhancer blocking activity in human cells and suggests that directional enhancerblocking by CTCF is a conserved component of gene regulation in vertebrates. Expand
H3.3/H2A.Z double variant-containing nucleosomes mark ‘nucleosome-free regions’ of active promoters and other regulatory regions in the human genome
It is shown that preparative methods used previously in studying nucleosome structure result in the loss of these unstable double-variant NCPs, and it seems likely that this instability facilitates the access of transcription factors to promoters and other regulatory sites in vivo. Expand
Controlling the double helix
Chromatin is the complex of DNA and proteins in which the genetic material is packaged inside the cells of organisms with nuclei and exerts profound control over gene expression and other fundamental cellular processes. Expand
Insulators: exploiting transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms
New insights suggest that the mechanisms of action of both enhancer blockers and barriers might not be unique to these types of element, but instead are adaptations of other gene-regulatory mechanisms. Expand
Insulators: many functions, many mechanisms.
Eukaryotic genomes are organized into domains containing individual genes and gene clusters that have distinct patterns of expression both during development and in differentiated cells. TheseExpand
Nucleosome stability mediated by histone variants H3.3 and H2A.Z.
An hierarchy of stabilities for native nucleosomes carrying different complements of variants is established, and how H2A.Z could play different roles depending on its partners within the NCP is suggested. Expand
CTCF tethers an insulator to subnuclear sites, suggesting shared insulator mechanisms across species.
It is shown that CTCF copurifies with the nucleolar protein nucleophosmin and both are present at insulator sites in vivo, and exogenous insulator sequences are tethered to the nucleolus in a C TCF-dependent manner. Expand
Transitions in histone acetylation reveal boundaries of three separately regulated neighboring loci
There is a very strong constitutive focus of hyperacetylation at the 5′ insulator element separating the globin locus from the folate receptor region, which suggests that this insulators element may harbor a high concentration of histone acetylases. Expand