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Randomization of genes by PCR mutagenesis.
A modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to introduce random point mutations into cloned genes and was used to mutagenize the gene that encodes the Tetrahymena ribozyme with a mutation rate of 0.66% +/- 0.13% per position per PCR.
A general purpose RNA-cleaving DNA enzyme.
- S. Santoro, G. F. Joyce
- Biology, ChemistryProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 29 April 1997
An in vitro selection procedure was used to develop a DNA enzyme that can be made to cleave almost any targeted RNA substrate under simulated physiological conditions, and its activity is dependent on the presence of Mg2+ ion.
The antiquity of RNA-based evolution
- G. F. Joyce
- 11 July 2002
It is concluded that DNA- and protein-based life was preceded by a simpler life form based primarily on RNA, referred to as the 'RNA world', during which the genetic information resided in the sequence of RNA molecules and the phenotype derived from the catalytic properties of RNA.
A DNA enzyme that cleaves RNA.
RNA evolution and the origins of life
- G. F. Joyce
- 16 March 1989
It is doubtful that life began with RNA, but consideration of what came before RNA must take into account relevant information from geochemistry, prebiotic chemistry and nucleic acid biochemistry.
Mechanism and utility of an RNA-cleaving DNA enzyme.
Kinetic measurements reveal that the enzymes strongly prefers cleavage of the substrate over ligation of the two cleavage products and that the enzyme's catalytic efficiency is limited by the rate of substrate binding.
Self-Sustained Replication of an RNA Enzyme
An RNA enzyme that catalyzes the RNA-templated joining of RNA was converted to a format whereby two enzymes catalyze each other's synthesis from a total of four oligonucleotide substrates, allowing different selective outcomes to be related to the underlying properties of the genetic system.
Chiral selection in poly(C)-directed synthesis of oligo(G)
- G. F. Joyce, G. M. Visser, C. V. Boeckel, J. Boom, L. Orgel, J. Westrenen
- 16 August 1984
It is reported here that poly(C)-directed oligomerization of activated guanosine mononucleotides proceeds readily if the monomers are of the same optical handedness as the template, and is indeed far less efficient if theMonomers of the opposite handedness are involved.
A 1.7-kilobase single-stranded DNA that folds into a nanoscale octahedron
The design and synthesis of a 1,669-nucleotide, single-stranded DNA molecule that is readily amplified by polymerases and that, in the presence of five 40-mer synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, folds into an octahedron structure by a simple denaturation–renaturation procedure is reported.