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The metabolic state of diabetic monkeys is regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21.
TLDR
Systemic administration of FGF-21 reduced plasma glucose and triglycerides to near normal levels in genetically compromised diabetic rodents and led to significant improvements in lipoprotein profiles, including lowering of low-density lipop Protein cholesterol and raising of high-density Lipoprotein cholesterol. Expand
Engineering and characterization of the long‐acting glucagon‐like peptide‐1 analogue LY2189265, an Fc fusion protein
TLDR
A long‐acting and efficacious GLP‐1 immunoglobulin G (IgG4) Fc fusion protein (LY2189265) with extended pharmacokinetics and activity is developed for type 2 diabetes treatment with a short half‐life. Expand
Antidiabetic Action of a Liver X Receptor Agonist Mediated By Inhibition of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis*
TLDR
It is shown that the regulation of the liver gluconeogenic pathway by LXR agonists was a direct effect on hepatocytes, and an unanticipated role for these receptors is revealed, further linking lipid and glucose metabolism. Expand
Nitric Oxide Stimulates Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transport Through a Calcium/Contraction– and Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase–Independent Pathway
TLDR
The results indicate that NO/cGMP can markedly stimulate skeletal muscle glucose transport by increasing GLUT4 levels at the cell surface by a mechanism that does not depend on activation of PI-3-K. Expand
Profiling of Zucker diabetic fatty rats in their progression to the overt diabetic state.
TLDR
At a crucial stage from 7 to 8 weeks, a reduction in insulin levels instigated several deleterious changes resulting in reduced whole-body carbohydrate utilization and increased glycemia. Expand
Effects of exercise training on muscle GLUT-4 protein content and translocation in obese Zucker rats.
TLDR
Exercise training did not alter basal, insulin-, or contraction-stimulated GLUT-4 functional activity, and trained and untrained Zucker rats had significantly higher GLUT4 protein concentration and citrate synthase activity than the UT rats in the soleus, plantaris, RG, and WG. Expand
Glucose transport and cell surface GLUT-4 protein in skeletal muscle of the obese Zucker rat.
TLDR
The reduced glucose transport response to insulin in skeletal muscle of the obese Zucker rat appears to result directly from an inability to effectively enhance cell surface GLUT-4 protein. Expand
Exercise training reverses insulin resistance in muscle by enhanced recruitment of GLUT-4 to the cell surface.
TLDR
Training improves insulin-stimulated glucose transport in muscle of the obese Zucker rat by increasing GLUT-4 content and by altering the normal intracellular distribution of these transporters such that they are now capable of migrating to the cell surface in response to the insulin stimulus. Expand
The effects of muscle contraction and insulin on glucose-transporter translocation in rat skeletal muscle.
TLDR
Results suggest that insulin and muscle contraction are mobilizing two separate pools of GLUT-4 protein, and the increase in skeletal-muscle glucose uptake due to insulin + contraction is not due to an increase in plasma-membrane GLUT -4 protein concentration above that observed for insulin or contraction alone. Expand
Biological characterization of a heterodimer-selective retinoid X receptor modulator: potential benefits for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
TLDR
Heterodimer-selective RXR modulators have been identified that retain the metabolic benefits of RXR agonists with reduced side effects and are a promising approach for developing improved therapies for type 2 diabetes, although additional studies are needed to understand the strain-specific effects on triglycerides. Expand
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