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Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life
TLDR
This data reinforce several previously identified clades that split deeply in the animal tree, unambiguously resolve multiple long-standing issues for which there was strong conflicting support in earlier studies with less data, and provide molecular support for the monophyly of molluscs, a group long recognized by morphologists.
Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods
  • A. Hejnol, M. Obst, +14 authors C. Dunn
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological…
  • 22 December 2009
TLDR
New sequence data and methods strongly uphold previous suggestions that Acoelomorpha is sister clade to all other bilaterian animals, find diminishing evidence for the placement of the enigmatic Xenoturbella within Deuterostomia, and place Cycliophora with Entoprocta and EctoproCTa.
Histone H3 and U2 snRNA DNA sequences and arthropod molecular evolution
TLDR
Combined (‘spliced’) analysis of both genes improves topological congruence with morphological groupings relative to that of either partition, suggesting that the class of snRNAs may provide several phylogenetically useful genes.
Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology
TLDR
The optimal ‘total evidence’ cladogram supports the crustacean–hexapod clade, recognizes pycnogonids as sister to other euarthropods, and indicates monophyly of Myriapoda and Mandibulata.
The evolution of arthropod heads: reconciling morphological, developmental and palaeontological evidence
TLDR
Current hypotheses about head segmentation and the nature of head structures from various perspectives are reviewed, and the concept of “primary” and “secondary antennae” in Recent and fossil arthropods are developed, it is proposed that Trilobita are stem lineage representatives of the Mandibulata.
MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the sister group of Arthropoda
TLDR
The study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the sister group to the arthropods.
Phylogeny and Systematic Position of Opiliones: A Combined Analysis of Chelicerate Relationships Using Morphological and Molecular Data 1
TLDR
The internal phylogeny of the Opiliones is robust to parameter choice and allows the discarding of previous hypotheses of opilionid phylogeny such as the “Cyphopalpatores” or “Palpatores,” and resolution within the Eupnoi, Dysp noi, and Laniatores is also stable to the superfamily level, permitting a new classification system for the opiliones.
Arthropod Cladistics: Combined Analysis of Histone H3 and U2 snRNA Sequences and Morphology
TLDR
The most parsimonious trees based on 211 non‐sequence characters (273 apomorphic states) support traditional higher taxa as clades, including Mandibulata, Crustacea, Atelocerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda and monophyly of Chelicerata is maintained under a range of transition/transversion and third codon weights.
Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions
TLDR
The relationships of the five main metazoan lineages—Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Bilateria—remain subject to conflicting topologies according to different taxonomic samples and analytical approaches.
Animal Phylogeny and Its Evolutionary Implications
TLDR
There is far more homoplasy for all these characters than had previously been anticipated, even among many complex characters such as segmentation and nervous systems, which has important implications for the understanding of the evolution of development, morphology, genomes, and other characters.
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