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Ocean bathymetry and mantle convection: 1. Large‐scale flow and hotspots
Numerical models of plate-scale convection confined to the upper mantle predict large deviations from observed ocean bathymetry, gravity, and geoid, while whole mantle models yield first-orderExpand
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Dynamic Earth: Plates, Plumes and Mantle Convection
Part I. Origins: 1. Introduction 2. Emergence 3. Mobility Part II. Foundations: 4. Surface 5. Interior 6. Flow 7. Heat Part III. Essence: 8. Convection 9. Plates 10. The plate mode 11. The plume modeExpand
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Thermal histories of convective Earth models and constraints on radiogenic heat production in the Earth
Thermal histories have been calculated for simple models of the earth which assume that heat is transported by convection throughout the interior. The application of independent constraints to theseExpand
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Dynamic Earth: Index
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On the emergence of plate tectonics
At present, young oceanic lithosphere is positively buoyant, and it does not become negatively buoyant until it is older than about 20 m.y. If, in the past, the mantle was hotter, the oceanic crustExpand
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Stirring geochemistry in mantle convection models with stiff plates and slabs
Abstract Numerical models of mantle convection are presented that readily yield midocean ridge basalt (MORB) and oceanic island basalt (OIB) ages equaling or exceeding the apparent ∼1.8-Ga leadExpand
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Effect of plate bending on the Urey ratio and the thermal evolution of the mantle
Abstract The bending of tectonic plates as they subduct causes resistance to plate motions and mantle convection. It has been proposed that this effect could keep plate velocities relatively constantExpand
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Mantle Plumes and Continental Tectonics
Mantle plumes and plate tectonics, the result of two distinct modes of convection within the Earth, operate largely independently. Although plumes are secondary in terms of heat transport, they haveExpand
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Punctuated tectonic evolution of the earth
Abstract The potential of a phase transformation barrier to cause mantle layering has been incorporated into calculations of the thermal evolution of the earth's mantle based on parameterisedExpand
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Ocean bathymetry and mantle convection: 2. Small‐scale flow
Numerical models demonstrate that a boundary layer instability of the lower lithosphere does not stop the lithosphere from subsiding, and so it cannot explain the so-called flattening of oldExpand
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