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Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life
- B. Wiegmann, Michelle Trautwein, D. Yeates
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 14 March 2011
It is demonstrated that flies experienced three episodes of rapid radiation—lower Diptera (220 Ma), lower Brachycera (180 Ma), and Schizophora (65 Ma)—and a number of life history transitions to hematophagy, phytophagy and parasitism in the history of fly evolution over 260 million y.
Phylogenetics and temporal diversification of the earliest true flies (Insecta: Diptera) based on multiple nuclear genes
Relationships among families of the lower Diptera (formerly suborder ‘Nematocera’) are resolved using sequence data from four nuclear markers, including both ribosomal (28S rDNA) and protein‐coding (CAD, TPI and PGD) genes, and the results support both novel and traditional arrangements.
Phylogeny of the nematocerous families of Diptera (Insecta)
It is suggested that the Ptychopteromorpha–Culicomorha clade is the sister-group of all other extant Diptera and the Axymyiidae are part of a monophyletic Bibionmorpha.
The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence
The first numerical analysis of phylogenetic relationships of the entire order of Diptera using a comprehensive morphological character matrix is presented, and low levels of support for relationships between the infraorders of lower Diptera, lower Brachycera and major lineages of lower Cyclorrhapha are found.
Phylogeny and systematics of Diptera: Two decades of progress and prospects
The Diptera, or true flies, are the most ecologically diverse order of insects, spanning ecological roles from detritivory to vertebrate blood feeding and leaf mining, and major recent phylogenetic analyses are summarized in a supertree for the Diptera.
Assessing Macroinvertebrate Biodiversity in Freshwater Ecosystems: Advances and Challenges in DNA-based Approaches
- M. Pfrender, C. Hawkins, M. Whiting
- Environmental ScienceThe Quarterly Review of Biology
- 1 September 2010
It is suggested that the development of an assay platform based on DNA signatures will increase the precision and ease of quantifying biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems and alleviate some of the current limitations to biodiversity assessment strategies.
Phylogenetic synthesis of morphological and molecular data reveals new insights into the higher‐level classification of Tipuloidea (Diptera)
A revised phylogenetic classification is proposed for the crane flies based on a synthesis of evidence from multiple genes and morphology, not consistent with the existing subfamilial classification of the ‘Limoniidae’, which is paraphyletic with respect to a well‐supported Tipulinae + Cylindrotominae clade.
Next-Generation Field Guides
Technical innovations of next-generation field guides are reviewed, including Web-based and stand-alone applications, interactive multiple-access keys, visual-recognition software adapted to identify organisms, species checklists that can be customized to particular sites, online communities in which people share species observations, and the use of crowdsourced data to refine machine-based identification algorithms.
Global diversity of dipteran families (Insecta Diptera) in freshwater (excluding Simulidae, Culicidae, Chironomidae, Tipulidae and Tabanidae)
Today's knowledge of worldwide species diversity of 19 families of aquatic Diptera in Continental Waters is presented and numbers of aquatic species will surely increase with increased ecological and taxonomical efforts.
Biosystematics of the Nymphomyiidae (Insecta: Diptera) : life history, morphology, and phylogenetic relationships
- G. Courtney
Previously undescribed characters are evaluated and incorporated in a redescription of the Nymphomyiidae (Diptera) and several compelling characters help define the eastern Palaearctic alba group, and others provide strong evidence that the Oriental species brundini and holoptica are monophyletic.