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Cyanobacterial microcystin‐LR is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A from both mammals and higher plants
Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection.
Diverse taxa of cyanobacteria produce beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid.
- P. Cox, S. Banack, B. Bergman
- Biology, Environmental ScienceProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 5 April 2005
It is reported here that a single neurotoxin, beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, may be produced by all known groups of cyanobacteria, including cyanobacterial symbionts and free-living cyanob bacteria.
Extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of microcystins in raw and treated waters.
A method was developed that permits the determination of numerous variants of microcystins by a single procedure, and involves filtration to separate cyanobacterial cells from water, allowing intracellular and extracellular toxin levels to be assessed.
Identification of an enzymatically formed glutathione conjugate of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR: the first step of detoxication.
- J. Huisman, G. Codd, H. Paerl, B. Ibelings, J. Verspagen, P. Visser
- Environmental ScienceNature Reviews Microbiology
- 26 June 2018
Evidence indicating that cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in frequency, magnitude and duration globally is reviewed and species traits and environmental conditions that enable cyanobacteria to thrive are highlighted.
Effects of Light on the Microcystin Content of Microcystis Strain PCC 7806
- C. Wiedner, P. Visser, J. Fastner, J. Metcalf, G. Codd, L. R. Mur
- BiologyApplied and Environmental Microbiology
- 1 March 2003
A positive effect of PAR is shown up to the point where the maximum growth rate is reached, while at higher irradiances the microcystin production is inhibited.
Cyanobacterial toxins, exposure routes and human health
- G. Codd, S. Bell, K. Kaya, C. Ward, K. Beattie, J. Metcalf
- Environmental Science, Biology
- 1 October 1999
Advances in the recognition of cyanobacterial toxins and their toxicity, and of the exposure routes with reference to human health, namely via skin contact, inhalation, haemodialysis and ...
Uptake and effects of microcystin‐LR on detoxication enzymes of early life stages of the zebra fish (Danio rerio)
There was a detectable uptake of microcystin from the first day of embryonic development up to 5 day old larvae, and because of the differences in volume of the eggs and eleuthero‐embryos, there was an increase in the microcyStin‐LR concentration between these stages.
Cyanobacterial toxins, the perception of water quality, and the prioritisation of eutrophication control
- G. Codd
- Environmental Science
- 1 October 2000