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The concepts of stress and stress system disorders. Overview of physical and behavioral homeostasis.
The notion of a stress system as the effector of the stress syndrome is suggested, and its physiologic and pathophysiologic manifestations are described, to allow generation and testing of new hypotheses on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of, and therapy for, a variety of human illnesses. Expand
Stress and disorders of the stress system
  • G. Chrousos
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nature Reviews Endocrinology
  • 2 June 2009
Optimal basal activity and responsiveness of the stress system is essential for a sense of well-being, successful performance of tasks, and appropriate social interactions, which might impair development, growth and body composition, and lead to a host of behavioral and somatic pathological conditions. Expand
Endocrinology of the stress response.
The stress response is subserved by the stress system, which is located both in the central nervous system and the periphery. The principal effectors of the stress system includeExpand
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors and stress.
CRH antagonists may be useful in human pathologic states, such as melancholic depression and chronic anxiety, associated with chronic hyperactivity of the stress system, along with predictable behavioral, neuroendocrine, metabolic and immune changes, based on the interrelations outlined above. Expand
The sympathetic nerve--an integrative interface between two supersystems: the brain and the immune system.
The activation of SNS during an immune response might be aimed to localize the inflammatory response, through induction of neutrophil accumulation and stimulation of more specific humoral immune responses, although systemically it may suppress Th1 responses, and, thus protect the organism from the detrimental effects of proinflammatory cytokines and other products of activated macrophages. Expand
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune-mediated inflammation.
  • G. Chrousos
  • Medicine
  • The New England journal of medicine
  • 18 May 1995
Celsus described four of the five cardinal signs of inflammation 2000 years ago, and Eustachio discovered the adrenal glands almost 500 years ago, but not until 1936 did Selye note that in ratsExpand
Noncoding RNA Gas5 Is a Growth Arrest– and Starvation-Associated Repressor of the Glucocorticoid Receptor
It is concluded that Gas5 is a “riborepressor” of the GR, influencing cell survival and metabolic activities during starvation by modulating the transcriptional activity of theGR. Expand
Organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and atypical depression: high vs low CRH/NE states
The mediators and circuitries of the stress system are reviewed to lay the groundwork for placing in context physiologic and structural alterations in depression that may occur as part of stress system dysfunction. Expand
Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies
It is suggested that diagnosis, prevention and treatment in children and adolescents should better focus on established risk factors rather than the diagnosis of MetS, because of its alarmingly increasing prevalence. Expand
Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: Consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of
Objective:To develop consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients. Participants:A multidisciplinary, multispecialty taskExpand