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Trypanosoma brucei Modifies the Tsetse Salivary Composition, Altering the Fly Feeding Behavior That Favors Parasite Transmission
TLDR
Evidence is provided for a trypanosome-mediated modification of the tsetse salivary composition that results in a drastically reduced anti-haemostatic potential and a hampered feeding performance which could lead to an increase of the vector/host contact and parasite transmission in field conditions.
High Affinity Nanobodies against the Trypanosome brucei VSG Are Potent Trypanolytic Agents that Block Endocytosis
TLDR
It is proposed that the generation of low molecular weight VSG-specific trypanolytic nanobodies that impede endocytosis offers a new opportunity for developing novel trypanosomiasis therapeutics and the data suggest that the antigen-binding domain of an anti-microbial antibody harbours biological functionality that is latent in the intact immunoglobulin and is revealed only upon release of the antigen -binding fragment.
Immune Evasion Strategies of Trypanosoma brucei within the Mammalian Host: Progression to Pathogenicity
TLDR
An overview of the different mechanisms AT (i.e. T. brucei as a model organism) employ, comprising both tsetse fly saliva and parasite-derived components to modulate host innate immune responses thereby sculpturing an environment that allows survival and development within the mammalian host.
Mouse models for pathogenic African trypanosomes: unravelling the immunology of host–parasite–vector interactions
TLDR
African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that affects a variety of mammals, including humans, on the sub‐Saharan African continent and mouse models for the disease have proven to be a cornerstone in understanding the diverse parameters that govern the host–parasite–vector interactions.
Tsetse fly saliva biases the immune response to Th2 and induces anti-vector antibodies that are a useful tool for exposure assessment.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that saliva induces strong humoral responses against the major 43-45 kDa protein fraction (tsetse salivary gland proteins 1 and 2) in mice and humans and suppresses murine T and B cell responses to heterologous antigen and proposed that anti-saliva as well as anti-Tsal1/2 antibody responses can be used in epidemiological studies as a tool to analyze human exposure to tsetse flies.
Current status of vaccination against African trypanosomiasis
TLDR
Past and current attempts to design both anti-trypanosome vaccines, as well as vaccines directed towards the inhibition of infection-associated pathology are reviewed.
Genome Sequence of the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans): Vector of African Trypanosomiasis
TLDR
The sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina mors Titans morsitans genome are described, providing a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.
The Dermis as a Delivery Site of Trypanosoma brucei for Tsetse Flies
TLDR
Experimental transmission experiments combined with molecular parasite detection in blood fed flies provided evidence that dermal trypanosomes can be acquired from the inoculation site immediately after the initial transmission, and intradermal parasite expansion induces elevated skin surface temperatures.
Tsetse Fly Saliva Accelerates the Onset of Trypanosoma brucei Infection in a Mouse Model Associated with a Reduced Host Inflammatory Response
TLDR
It is demonstrated that tsetse fly saliva also accelerates the onset of a Trypanosoma brucei infection, and this effect was associated with a reduced inflammatory reaction at the site of infection initiation.
Delivery of a functional anti-trypanosome Nanobody in different tsetse fly tissues via a bacterial symbiont, Sodalis glossinidius
TLDR
The proof-of-concept that the Sodalis symbiont can be genetically engineered to express and release significant amounts of functional anti-trypanosome Nbs in different tissues of the tsetse fly is demonstrated.
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