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Systemic LPS causes chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration
TLDR
It is demonstrated that through TNFα, peripheral inflammation in adult animals can activate brain microglia to produce chronically elevated pro‐inflammatory factors and induce delayed and progressive loss of DA neurons in the SN, providing valuable insight into the potential pathogenesis and self‐propelling nature of Parkinson's disease.
Pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate in man, rat and monkey.
TLDR
The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of methylphenidate (MPH) and a metabolite, ritalinic acid (RA), were studied in normal adults, children with hyperactivity, monkeys and rats, suggesting substantial presystemic elimination of MPH.
Genetic essential tremor in gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor alpha1 subunit knockout mice.
TLDR
It is reported that gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A) receptor alpha1-/- mice exhibit postural and kinetic tremor and motor incoordination that is characteristic of essential tremor disease, and a mechanism of GABAergic dysfunction in the major motor pathway is elucidated.
Enkephalin action on the mesolimbic system: a dopamine-dependent and a dopamine-independent increase in locomotor activity.
TLDR
Data are consistent with the postulate that this treatment with DALA activates the mesolimbic DA system, as microinjection of the peptidase-resistant enkephalin analog produced a dose-dependent increase in locomotion and rearing which was antagonized by neuroleptic administration in the nucleus accumbens.
Accentuated decrease in social interaction in rats subjected to repeated ethanol withdrawals.
TLDR
Repeated withdrawal from ethanol can lead to accentuated or more persistent anxiety-like behavior in rats, as indicated by a decrease in social interaction and a withdrawal-induced decrease in locomotor activity.
Stress enhancement of craving during sobriety: a risk for relapse.
TLDR
Evidence linking stress during sobriety to craving that increases the risk for relapse is provided, and novel pharmacological approaches for treating relapse induced by stress are suggested.
Accentuated decrease in social interaction in rats subjected to repeated ethanol withdrawals.
TLDR
Repeated withdrawal from ethanol can lead to accentuated or more persistent anxiety-like behavior in rats, as indicated by a decrease in social interaction and a withdrawal-induced decrease in locomotor activity.
Conceptual framework for the etiology of alcoholism: a “kindling”/stress hypothesis
TLDR
The “kindling”/stress hypothesis is based on the premise that repeated withdrawals from cycles of chronic alcohol exposure contribute to a progressive development of persisting adaptive change that sensitizes withdrawal-induced anxiety and allows stress to evoke symptoms associated with negative affect during abstinence.
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